(2021). Reconstitution of the destruction complex defines roles of AXIN polymers and APC in β-catenin capture, phosphorylation, and ubiquitylation. ,
The Wnt/β-catenin pathway is a highly conserved, frequently mutated developmental and cancer pathway. Its output is defined mainly by β-catenin's phosphorylation- and ubiquitylation-dependent proteasomal degradation, initiated by the multi-protein β-catenin destruction complex. The precise mechanisms underlying destruction complex function have remained unknown, largely because of the lack of suitable in vitro systems. Here we describe the in vitro reconstitution of an active human β-catenin destruction complex from purified components, recapitulating complex assembly, β-catenin modification, and degradation. We reveal that AXIN1 polymerization and APC promote β-catenin capture, phosphorylation, and ubiquitylation. APC facilitates β-catenin's flux through the complex by limiting ubiquitylation processivity and directly interacts with the SCFβ-TrCP E3 ligase complex in a β-TrCP-dependent manner. Oncogenic APC truncation variants, although part of the complex, are functionally impaired. Nonetheless, even the most severely truncated APC variant promotes β-catenin recruitment. These findings exemplify the power of biochemical reconstitution to interrogate the molecular mechanisms of Wnt/β-catenin signaling..
(2019). Solution NMR assignment of the ARC4 domain of human tankyrase 2. Biomolecular nmr assignments,
Tankyrases are poly(ADP-ribose)polymerases (PARPs) which recognize their substrates via their ankyrin repeat cluster (ARC) domains. The human tankyrases (TNKS/TNKS2) contain five ARCs in their extensive N-terminal region; of these, four bind peptides present within tankyrase interactors and substrates. These short, linear segments, known as tankyrase-binding motifs (TBMs), contain some highly conserved features: an arginine at position 1, which occupies a predominantly acidic binding site, and a glycine at position 6 that is sandwiched between two aromatic side chains on the surface of the ARC domain. Tankyrases are involved in a multitude of biological functions, amongst them Wnt/β-catenin signaling, the maintenance of telomeres, glucose metabolism, spindle formation, the DNA damage response and Hippo signaling. As many of these are relevant to human disease, tankyrase is an important target candidate for drug development. With the emergence of non-catalytic (scaffolding) functions of tankyrase, it seems attractive to interfere with ARC function rather than the enzymatic activity of tankyrase. To study the mechanism of ARC-dependent recruitment of tankyrase binders and enable protein-observed NMR screening methods, we have as the first step obtained a full backbone and partial side chain assignment of TNKS2 ARC4. The assignment highlights some of the unusual structural features of the ARC domain..
(2019). Fragment-based screening identifies molecules targeting the substrate-binding ankyrin repeat domains of tankyrase. Scientific reports,
The PARP enzyme and scaffolding protein tankyrase (TNKS, TNKS2) uses its ankyrin repeat clusters (ARCs) to bind a wide range of proteins and thereby controls diverse cellular functions. A number of these are implicated in cancer-relevant processes, including Wnt/β-catenin signalling, Hippo signalling and telomere maintenance. The ARCs recognise a conserved tankyrase-binding peptide motif (TBM). All currently available tankyrase inhibitors target the catalytic domain and inhibit tankyrase's poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation function. However, there is emerging evidence that catalysis-independent "scaffolding" mechanisms contribute to tankyrase function. Here we report a fragment-based screening programme against tankyrase ARC domains, using a combination of biophysical assays, including differential scanning fluorimetry (DSF) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. We identify fragment molecules that will serve as starting points for the development of tankyrase substrate binding antagonists. Such compounds will enable probing the scaffolding functions of tankyrase, and may, in the future, provide potential alternative therapeutic approaches to inhibiting tankyrase activity in cancer and other conditions..
(2018). Structural Basis for Auto-Inhibition of the NDR1 Kinase Domain by an Atypically Long Activation Segment. Structure (london, england : 1993),
The human NDR family kinases control diverse aspects of cell growth, and are regulated through phosphorylation and association with scaffolds such as MOB1. Here, we report the crystal structure of the human NDR1 kinase domain in its non-phosphorylated state, revealing a fully resolved atypically long activation segment that blocks substrate binding and stabilizes a non-productive position of helix αC. Consistent with an auto-inhibitory function, mutations within the activation segment of NDR1 dramatically enhance in vitro kinase activity. Interestingly, NDR1 catalytic activity is further potentiated by MOB1 binding, suggesting that regulation through modulation of the activation segment and by MOB1 binding are mechanistically distinct. Lastly, deleting the auto-inhibitory activation segment of NDR1 causes a marked increase in the association with upstream Hippo pathway components and the Furry scaffold. These findings provide a point of departure for future efforts to explore the cellular functions and the mechanism of NDR1..
(2017). Regulation of Wnt/β-catenin signalling by tankyrase-dependent poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation and scaffolding. British journal of pharmacology,
The Wnt/β-catenin signalling pathway is pivotal for stem cell function and the control of cellular differentiation, both during embryonic development and tissue homeostasis in adults. Its activity is carefully controlled through the concerted interactions of concentration-limited pathway components and a wide range of post-translational modifications, including phosphorylation, ubiquitylation, sumoylation, poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation (PARylation) and acetylation. Regulation of Wnt/β-catenin signalling by PARylation was discovered relatively recently. The PARP tankyrase PARylates AXIN1/2, an essential central scaffolding protein in the β-catenin destruction complex, and targets it for degradation, thereby fine-tuning the responsiveness of cells to the Wnt signal. The past few years have not only seen much progress in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms by which PARylation controls the pathway but also witnessed the successful development of tankyrase inhibitors as tool compounds and promising agents for the therapy of Wnt-dependent dysfunctions, including colorectal cancer. Recent work has hinted at more complex roles of tankyrase in Wnt/β-catenin signalling as well as challenges and opportunities in the development of tankyrase inhibitors. Here we review some of the latest advances in our understanding of tankyrase function in the pathway and efforts to modulate tankyrase activity to re-tune Wnt/β-catenin signalling in colorectal cancer cells.
This article is part of a themed section on WNT Signalling: Mechanisms and Therapeutic Opportunities. To view the other articles in this section visit http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/bph.v174.24/issuetoc..
(2017). Identifying and Validating Tankyrase Binders and Substrates: A Candidate Approach. Methods mol biol,
The poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase (PARP) enzyme tankyrase (TNKS/ARTD5, TNKS2/ARTD6) uses its ankyrin repeat clusters (ARCs) to recognize degenerate peptide motifs in a wide range of proteins, thereby recruiting such proteins and their complexes for scaffolding and/or poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation. Here, we provide guidance for predicting putative tankyrase-binding motifs, based on the previously delineated peptide sequence rules and existing structural information. We present a general method for the expression and purification of tankyrase ARCs from Escherichia coli and outline a fluorescence polarization assay to quantitatively assess direct ARC-TBM peptide interactions. We provide a basic protocol for evaluating binding and poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation of full-length candidate interacting proteins by full-length tankyrase in mammalian cells..
(2016). Tankyrase Requires SAM Domain-Dependent Polymerization to Support Wnt-β-Catenin Signaling. Molecular cell,
(2016). AXIN Shapes Tankyrase ARChitecture. Structure,
(2011). Structural basis and sequence rules for substrate recognition by Tankyrase explain the basis for cherubism disease. Cell,
The poly(ADP-ribose)polymerases Tankyrase 1/2 (TNKS/TNKS2) catalyze the covalent linkage of ADP-ribose polymer chains onto target proteins, regulating their ubiquitylation, stability, and function. Dysregulation of substrate recognition by Tankyrases underlies the human disease cherubism. Tankyrases recruit specific motifs (often called RxxPDG "hexapeptides") in their substrates via an N-terminal region of ankyrin repeats. These ankyrin repeats form five domains termed ankyrin repeat clusters (ARCs), each predicted to bind substrate. Here we report crystal structures of a representative ARC of TNKS2 bound to targeting peptides from six substrates. Using a solution-based peptide library screen, we derive a rule-based consensus for Tankyrase substrates common to four functionally conserved ARCs. This 8-residue consensus allows us to rationalize all known Tankyrase substrates and explains the basis for cherubism-causing mutations in the Tankyrase substrate 3BP2. Structural and sequence information allows us to also predict and validate other Tankyrase targets, including Disc1, Striatin, Fat4, RAD54, BCR, and MERIT40..