Coles, C.E., Harris, E.J., Donovan, E.M., Bliss, P., Evans, P.M., Fairfoul, J., Mackenzie, C., Rawlings, C., Syndikus, I., Twyman, N., et al.
(2011). Evaluation of implanted gold seeds for breast radiotherapy planning and on treatment verification: a feasibility study on behalf of the IMPORT trialists. Radiother oncol,
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: We describe a feasibility study testing the use of gold seeds for the identification of post-operative tumour bed after breast conservation surgery (BCS). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty-three patients undergoing BCS for invasive cancer were recruited. Successful use was defined as all six seeds correctly positioned around the tumour bed during BCS, unique identification of all implanted seeds on CT planning scan and ≥ 3 seeds uniquely identified at verification to give couch displacement co-ordinates in 10/15 fractions. Planning target volume (PTV) margin size for four correction strategies were calculated from these data. Variability in tumour bed contouring was investigated with five radiation oncologists outlining five CT datasets. RESULTS: Success in inserting gold seeds, identifying them at CT planning and using them for on-treatment verification was recorded in 45/51 (88%), 37/38 (97%) and 42/43 (98%) of patients, respectively. The clinicians unfamiliar with CT breast planning consistently contoured larger volumes than those already trained. Margin size ranged from 10.1 to 1.4mm depending on correction strategy. CONCLUSION: It is feasible to implant tumour bed gold seeds during BCS. Whilst taking longer to insert than surgical clips, they have the advantage of visibility for outlining and verification regardless of the ionising radiation beam quality. Appropriate correction strategies enable margins of the order of 5mm as required by the IMPORT trials however, tackling clinician variability in contouring is important..
Harris, E.J., Miller, N.R., Bamber, J.C., Symonds-Tayler, J.R. & Evans, P.M.
(2010). Speckle tracking in a phantom and feature-based tracking in liver in the presence of respiratory motion using 4D ultrasound. Phys med biol,
We have evaluated a 4D ultrasound-based motion tracking system developed for tracking of abdominal organs during therapy. Tracking accuracy and precision were determined using a tissue-mimicking phantom, by comparing tracked motion with known 3D sinusoidal motion. The feasibility of tracking 3D liver motion in vivo was evaluated by acquiring 4D ultrasound data from four healthy volunteers. For two of these volunteers, data were also acquired whilst simultaneously measuring breath flow using a spirometer. Hepatic blood vessels, tracked off-line using manual tracking, were used as a reference to assess, in vivo, two types of automated tracking algorithm: incremental (from one volume to the next) and non-incremental (from the first volume to each subsequent volume). For phantom-based experiments, accuracy and precision (RMS error and SD) were found to be 0.78 mm and 0.54 mm, respectively. For in vivo measurements, mean absolute distance and standard deviation of the difference between automatically and manually tracked displacements were less than 1.7 mm and 1 mm respectively in all directions (left-right, anterior-posterior and superior-inferior). In vivo non-incremental tracking gave the best agreement. In both phantom and in vivo experiments, tracking performance was poorest for the elevational component of 3D motion. Good agreement between automatically and manually tracked displacements indicates that 4D ultrasound-based motion tracking has potential for image guidance applications in therapy..
Harris, E.J., Donovan, E.M., Yarnold, J.R., Coles, C.E., Evans, P.M. & IMPORT Trial Management Group,
(2009). Characterization of target volume changes during breast radiotherapy using implanted fiducial markers and portal imaging. Int j radiat oncol biol phys,
PURPOSE: To determine target volume changes by using volume and shape analysis for patients receiving radiotherapy after breast conservation surgery and to compare different methods of automatically identifying changes in target volume, position, size, and shape during radiotherapy for use in adaptive radiotherapy. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Eleven patients undergoing whole breast radiotherapy had fiducial markers sutured into the excision cavity at the time of surgery. Patients underwent imaging using computed tomography (for planning and at the end of treatment) and during treatment by using portal imaging. A marker volume (MV) was defined by using the measured marker positions. Changes in both individual marker positions and MVs were identified manually and using six automated similarity indices. Comparison of the two types of analysis (manual and automated) was undertaken to establish whether similarity indices can be used to automatically detect changes in target volumes. RESULTS: Manual analysis showed that 3 patients had significant MV reduction. This analysis also showed significant changes between planning computed tomography and the start of treatment for 9 patients, including single and multiple marker movement, deformation (shape change), and rotation. Four of the six similarity indices were shown to be sensitive to the observed changes. CONCLUSIONS: Significant changes in size, shape, and position occur to the fiducial marker-defined volume. Four similarity indices can be used to identify these changes, and a protocol for their use in adaptive radiotherapy is suggested..
McNair, H.A., Hansen, V.N., Parker, C.C., Evans, P.M., Norman, A., Miles, E., Harris, E.J., Del-Acroix, L., Smith, E., Keane, R., et al.
(2008). A comparison of the use of bony anatomy and internal markers for offline verification and an evaluation of the potential benefit of online and offline verification protocols for prostate radiotherapy. Int j radiat oncol biol phys,
PURPOSE: To evaluate the utility of intraprostatic markers in the treatment verification of prostate cancer radiotherapy. Specific aims were: to compare the effectiveness of offline correction protocols, either using gold markers or bony anatomy; to estimate the potential benefit of online correction protocol's using gold markers; to determine the presence and effect of intrafraction motion. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Thirty patients with three gold markers inserted had pretreatment and posttreatment images acquired and were treated using an offline correction protocol and gold markers. Retrospectively, an offline protocol was applied using bony anatomy and an online protocol using gold markers. RESULTS: The systematic errors were reduced from 1.3, 1.9, and 2.5 mm to 1.1, 1.1, and 1.5 mm in the right-left (RL), superoinferior (SI), and anteroposterior (AP) directions, respectively, using the offline correction protocol and gold markers instead of bony anatomy. The subsequent decrease in margins was 1.7, 3.3, and 4 mm in the RL, SI, and AP directions, respectively. An offline correction protocol combined with an online correction protocol in the first four fractions reduced random errors further to 0.9, 1.1, and 1.0 mm in the RL, SI, and AP directions, respectively. A daily online protocol reduced all errors to <1 mm. Intrafraction motion had greater impact on the effectiveness of the online protocol than the offline protocols. CONCLUSIONS: An offline protocol using gold markers is effective in reducing the systematic error. The value of online protocols is reduced by intrafraction motion..