(2018). Mechanism for remodelling of the cell cycle checkpoint protein MAD2 by the ATPase TRIP13. Nature,
The maintenance of genome stability during mitosis is coordinated by the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) through its effector the mitotic checkpoint complex (MCC), an inhibitor of the anaphase-promoting complex (APC/C, also known as the cyclosome) 1,2 . Unattached kinetochores control MCC assembly by catalysing a change in the topology of the β-sheet of MAD2 (an MCC subunit), thereby generating the active closed MAD2 (C-MAD2) conformer 3-5 . Disassembly of free MCC, which is required for SAC inactivation and chromosome segregation, is an ATP-dependent process driven by the AAA+ ATPase TRIP13. In combination with p31 comet , an SAC antagonist 6 , TRIP13 remodels C-MAD2 into inactive open MAD2 (O-MAD2) 7-10 . Here, we present a mechanism that explains how TRIP13-p31 comet disassembles the MCC. Cryo-electron microscopy structures of the TRIP13-p31 comet -C-MAD2-CDC20 complex reveal that p31 comet recruits C-MAD2 to a defined site on the TRIP13 hexameric ring, positioning the N terminus of C-MAD2 (MAD2 NT ) to insert into the axial pore of TRIP13 and distorting the TRIP13 ring to initiate remodelling. Molecular modelling suggests that by gripping MAD2 NT within its axial pore, TRIP13 couples sequential ATP-driven translocation of its hexameric ring along MAD2 NT to push upwards on, and simultaneously rotate, the globular domains of the p31 comet -C-MAD2 complex. This unwinds a region of the αA helix of C-MAD2 that is required to stabilize the C-MAD2 β-sheet, thus destabilizing C-MAD2 in favour of O-MAD2 and dissociating MAD2 from p31 comet . Our study provides insights into how specific substrates are recruited to AAA+ ATPases through adaptor proteins and suggests a model of how translocation through the axial pore of AAA+ ATPases is coupled to protein remodelling..
(2016). Molecular basis of APC/C regulation by the spindle assembly checkpoint. Nature,
In the dividing eukaryotic cell, the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) ensures that each daughter cell inherits an identical set of chromosomes. The SAC coordinates the correct attachment of sister chromatid kinetochores to the mitotic spindle with activation of the anaphase-promoting complex (APC/C), the E3 ubiquitin ligase responsible for initiating chromosome separation. In response to unattached kinetochores, the SAC generates the mitotic checkpoint complex (MCC), which inhibits the APC/C and delays chromosome segregation. By cryo-electron microscopy, here we determine the near-atomic resolution structure of a human APC/C–MCC complex (APC/C(MCC)). Degron-like sequences of the MCC subunit BubR1 block degron recognition sites on Cdc20, the APC/C coactivator subunit responsible for substrate interactions. BubR1 also obstructs binding of the initiating E2 enzyme UbcH10 to repress APC/C ubiquitination activity. Conformational variability of the complex enables UbcH10 association, and structural analysis shows how the Cdc20 subunit intrinsic to the MCC (Cdc20(MCC)) is ubiquitinated, a process that results in APC/C reactivation when the SAC is silenced..