Scher, H.I., Fizazi, K., Saad, F., Taplin, M.-., Sternberg, C.N., Miller, K., de Wit, R., Mulders, P., Chi, K.N., Shore, N.D., et al.
(2012). Increased survival with enzalutamide in prostate cancer after chemotherapy. N engl j med,
BACKGROUND: Enzalutamide (formerly called MDV3100) targets multiple steps in the androgen-receptor-signaling pathway, the major driver of prostate-cancer growth. We aimed to evaluate whether enzalutamide prolongs survival in men with castration-resistant prostate cancer after chemotherapy. METHODS: In our phase 3, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, we stratified 1199 men with castration-resistant prostate cancer after chemotherapy according to the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance-status score and pain intensity. We randomly assigned them, in a 2:1 ratio, to receive oral enzalutamide at a dose of 160 mg per day (800 patients) or placebo (399 patients). The primary end point was overall survival. RESULTS: The study was stopped after a planned interim analysis at the time of 520 deaths. The median overall survival was 18.4 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 17.3 to not yet reached) in the enzalutamide group versus 13.6 months (95% CI, 11.3 to 15.8) in the placebo group (hazard ratio for death in the enzalutamide group, 0.63; 95% CI, 0.53 to 0.75; P<0.001). The superiority of enzalutamide over placebo was shown with respect to all secondary end points: the proportion of patients with a reduction in the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level by 50% or more (54% vs. 2%, P<0.001), the soft-tissue response rate (29% vs. 4%, P<0.001), the quality-of-life response rate (43% vs. 18%, P<0.001), the time to PSA progression (8.3 vs. 3.0 months; hazard ratio, 0.25; P<0.001), radiographic progression-free survival (8.3 vs. 2.9 months; hazard ratio, 0.40; P<0.001), and the time to the first skeletal-related event (16.7 vs. 13.3 months; hazard ratio, 0.69; P<0.001). Rates of fatigue, diarrhea, and hot flashes were higher in the enzalutamide group. Seizures were reported in five patients (0.6%) receiving enzalutamide. CONCLUSIONS: Enzalutamide significantly prolonged the survival of men with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer after chemotherapy. (Funded by Medivation and Astellas Pharma Global Development; AFFIRM ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00974311.)..
Yap, T.A., Olmos, D., Brunetto, A.T., Tunariu, N., Barriuso, J., Riisnaes, R., Pope, L., Clark, J., Futreal, A., Germuska, M., et al.
(2011). Phase I trial of a selective c-MET inhibitor ARQ 197 incorporating proof of mechanism pharmacodynamic studies. J clin oncol,
PURPOSE: The hepatocyte growth factor/c-MET axis is implicated in tumor cell proliferation, survival, and angiogenesis. ARQ 197 is an oral, selective, non-adenosine triphosphate competitive c-MET inhibitor. A phase I trial of ARQ 197 was conducted to assess safety, tolerability, and target inhibition, including intratumoral c-MET signaling, apoptosis, and angiogenesis. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with solid tumors amenable to pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies using serial biopsies, dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI), and circulating endothelial cell (CEC) and circulating tumor cell (CTC) enumeration were enrolled. RESULTS: Fifty-one patients received ARQ 197 at 100 to 400 mg twice per day. ARQ 197 was well tolerated, with the most common toxicities being grade 1 to 2 fatigue, nausea, and vomiting. Dose-limiting toxicities included grade 3 fatigue (200 mg twice per day; n = 1); grade 3 mucositis, palmar-plantar erythrodysesthesia, and hypokalemia (400 mg twice per day; n = 1); and grade 3 to 4 febrile neutropenia (400 mg twice per day, n = 2; 360 mg twice per day, n = 1). The recommended phase II dose was 360 mg twice per day. ARQ 197 systemic exposure was dose dependent and supported twice per day oral dosing. ARQ 197 decreased phosphorylated c-MET, total c-MET, and phosphorylated focal adhesion kinase and increased terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate-biotin nick-end labeling (TUNEL) staining in tumor biopsies (n = 15). CECs decreased in 25 (58.1%) of 43 patients, but no significant changes in DCE-MRI parameters were observed after ARQ 197 treatment. Of 15 patients with detectable CTCs, eight (53.3%) had ≥ 30% decline in CTCs after treatment. Stable disease, as defined by Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST), ≥ 4 months was observed in 14 patients, with minor regressions in gastric and Merkel cell cancers. CONCLUSION: ARQ 197 safely inhibited intratumoral c-MET signaling. Further clinical evaluation focusing on combination approaches, including an erlotinib combination in non-small-cell lung cancer, is ongoing..
de Bono, J.S., Logothetis, C.J., Molina, A., Fizazi, K., North, S., Chu, L., Chi, K.N., Jones, R.J., Goodman, O.B., Saad, F., et al.
(2011). Abiraterone and increased survival in metastatic prostate cancer. N engl j med,
BACKGROUND: Biosynthesis of extragonadal androgen may contribute to the progression of castration-resistant prostate cancer. We evaluated whether abiraterone acetate, an inhibitor of androgen biosynthesis, prolongs overall survival among patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer who have received chemotherapy. METHODS: We randomly assigned, in a 2:1 ratio, 1195 patients who had previously received docetaxel to receive 5 mg of prednisone twice daily with either 1000 mg of abiraterone acetate (797 patients) or placebo (398 patients). The primary end point was overall survival. The secondary end points included time to prostate-specific antigen (PSA) progression (elevation in the PSA level according to prespecified criteria), progression-free survival according to radiologic findings based on prespecified criteria, and the PSA response rate. RESULTS: After a median follow-up of 12.8 months, overall survival was longer in the abiraterone acetate-prednisone group than in the placebo-prednisone group (14.8 months vs. 10.9 months; hazard ratio, 0.65; 95% confidence interval, 0.54 to 0.77; P<0.001). Data were unblinded at the interim analysis, since these results exceeded the preplanned criteria for study termination. All secondary end points, including time to PSA progression (10.2 vs. 6.6 months; P<0.001), progression-free survival (5.6 months vs. 3.6 months; P<0.001), and PSA response rate (29% vs. 6%, P<0.001), favored the treatment group. Mineralocorticoid-related adverse events, including fluid retention, hypertension, and hypokalemia, were more frequently reported in the abiraterone acetate-prednisone group than in the placebo-prednisone group. CONCLUSIONS: The inhibition of androgen biosynthesis by abiraterone acetate prolonged overall survival among patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer who previously received chemotherapy. (Funded by Cougar Biotechnology; COU-AA-301 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00638690.)..
de Bono, J.S., Oudard, S., Ozguroglu, M., Hansen, S., Machiels, J.-., Kocak, I., Gravis, G., Bodrogi, I., Mackenzie, M.J., Shen, L., et al.
(2010). Prednisone plus cabazitaxel or mitoxantrone for metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer progressing after docetaxel treatment: a randomised open-label trial. Lancet,
BACKGROUND: Cabazitaxel is a novel tubulin-binding taxane drug with antitumour activity in docetaxel-resistant cancers. We aimed to compare the efficacy and safety of cabazitaxel plus prednisone with those of mitoxantrone plus prednisone in men with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer with progressive disease after docetaxel-based treatment. METHODS: We undertook an open-label randomised phase 3 trial in men with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer who had received previous hormone therapy, but whose disease had progressed during or after treatment with a docetaxel-containing regimen. Participants were treated with 10 mg oral prednisone daily, and were randomly assigned to receive either 12 mg/m(2) mitoxantrone intravenously over 15-30 min or 25 mg/m(2) cabazitaxel intravenously over 1 h every 3 weeks. The random allocation schedule was computer-generated; patients and treating physicians were not masked to treatment allocation, but the study team was masked to the data analysis. The primary endpoint was overall survival. Secondary endpoints included progression-free survival and safety. Analysis was by intention to treat. This study is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00417079. FINDINGS: 755 men were allocated to treatment groups (377 mitoxantrone, 378 cabazitaxel) and were included in the intention-to-treat analysis. At the cutoff for the final analysis (Sept 25, 2009), median survival was 15·1 months (95% CI 14·1-16·3) in the cabazitaxel group and 12·7 months (11·6-13·7) in the mitoxantrone group. The hazard ratio for death of men treated with cabazitaxel compared with those taking mitoxantrone was 0·70 (95% CI 0·59-0·83, p<0·0001). Median progression-free survival was 2·8 months (95% CI 2·4-3·0) in the cabazitaxel group and 1·4 months (1·4-1·7) in the mitoxantrone group (HR 0·74, 0·64-0·86, p<0·0001). The most common clinically significant grade 3 or higher adverse events were neutropenia (cabazitaxel, 303 [82%] patients vs mitoxantrone, 215 [58%]) and diarrhoea (23 [6%] vs one [<1%]). 28 (8%) patients in the cabazitaxel group and five (1%) in the mitoxantrone group had febrile neutropenia. INTERPRETATION: Treatment with cabazitaxel plus prednisone has important clinical antitumour activity, improving overall survival in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer whose disease has progressed during or after docetaxel-based therapy. FUNDING: Sanofi-Aventis..
Fong, P.C., Boss, D.S., Yap, T.A., Tutt, A., Wu, P., Mergui-Roelvink, M., Mortimer, P., Swaisland, H., Lau, A., O'Connor, M.J., et al.
(2009). Inhibition of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase in tumors from BRCA mutation carriers. N engl j med,
BACKGROUND: The inhibition of poly(adenosine diphosphate [ADP]-ribose) polymerase (PARP) is a potential synthetic lethal therapeutic strategy for the treatment of cancers with specific DNA-repair defects, including those arising in carriers of a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation. We conducted a clinical evaluation in humans of olaparib (AZD2281), a novel, potent, orally active PARP inhibitor. METHODS: This was a phase 1 trial that included the analysis of pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic characteristics of olaparib. Selection was aimed at having a study population enriched in carriers of a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation. RESULTS: We enrolled and treated 60 patients; 22 were carriers of a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation and 1 had a strong family history of BRCA-associated cancer but declined to undergo mutational testing. The olaparib dose and schedule were increased from 10 mg daily for 2 of every 3 weeks to 600 mg twice daily continuously. Reversible dose-limiting toxicity was seen in one of eight patients receiving 400 mg twice daily (grade 3 mood alteration and fatigue) and two of five patients receiving 600 mg twice daily (grade 4 thrombocytopenia and grade 3 somnolence). This led us to enroll another cohort, consisting only of carriers of a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation, to receive olaparib at a dose of 200 mg twice daily. Other adverse effects included mild gastrointestinal symptoms. There was no obvious increase in adverse effects seen in the mutation carriers. Pharmacokinetic data indicated rapid absorption and elimination; pharmacodynamic studies confirmed PARP inhibition in surrogate samples (of peripheral-blood mononuclear cells and plucked eyebrow-hair follicles) and tumor tissue. Objective antitumor activity was reported only in mutation carriers, all of whom had ovarian, breast, or prostate cancer and had received multiple treatment regimens. CONCLUSIONS: Olaparib has few of the adverse effects of conventional chemotherapy, inhibits PARP, and has antitumor activity in cancer associated with the BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00516373.).
Attard, G., Reid, A.H., Yap, T.A., Raynaud, F., Dowsett, M., Settatree, S., Barrett, M., Parker, C., Martins, V., Folkerd, E., et al.
(2008). Phase I clinical trial of a selective inhibitor of CYP17, abiraterone acetate, confirms that castration-resistant prostate cancer commonly remains hormone driven. J clin oncol,
PURPOSE: Studies indicate that castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) remains driven by ligand-dependent androgen receptor (AR) signaling. To evaluate this, a trial of abiraterone acetate-a potent, selective, small-molecule inhibitor of cytochrome P (CYP) 17, a key enzyme in androgen synthesis-was pursued. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Chemotherapy-naïve men (n = 21) who had prostate cancer that was resistant to multiple hormonal therapies were treated in this phase I study of once-daily, continuous abiraterone acetate, which escalated through five doses (250 to 2,000 mg) in three-patient cohorts. RESULTS: Abiraterone acetate was well tolerated. The anticipated toxicities attributable to a syndrome of secondary mineralocorticoid excess-namely hypertension, hypokalemia, and lower-limb edema-were successfully managed with a mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist. Antitumor activity was observed at all doses; however, because of a plateau in pharmacodynamic effect, 1,000 mg was selected for cohort expansion (n = 9). Abiraterone acetate administration was associated with increased levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone and steroids upstream of CYP17 and with suppression of serum testosterone, downstream androgenic steroids, and estradiol in all patients. Declines in prostate-specific antigen >or= 30%, 50%, and 90% were observed in 14 (66%), 12 (57%), and 6 (29%) patients, respectively, and lasted between 69 to >or= 578 days. Radiologic regression, normalization of lactate dehydrogenase, and improved symptoms with a reduction in analgesic use were documented. CONCLUSION: CYP17 blockade by abiraterone acetate is safe and has significant antitumor activity in CRPC. These data confirm that CRPC commonly remains dependent on ligand-activated AR signaling..