Nathan, P., Zweifel, M., Padhani, A.R., Koh, D.-., Ng, M., Collins, D.J., Harris, A., Carden, C., Smythe, J., Fisher, N., et al.
(2012). Phase I trial of combretastatin A4 phosphate (CA4P) in combination with bevacizumab in patients with advanced cancer. Clin cancer res,
PURPOSE: The vascular disrupting agent (VDA) combretastatin A4 phosphate (CA4P) induces significant tumor necrosis as a single agent. Preclinical models have shown that the addition of an anti-VEGF antibody to a VDA attenuates the revascularization of the surviving tumor rim and thus significantly increases antitumor activity. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Patients with advanced solid malignancies received CA4P at 45, 54, or 63 mg/m(2) on day 1, day 8, and then every 14 days. Bevacizumab 10 mg/kg was given on day 8 and at subsequent cycles four hours after CA4P. Functional imaging with dynamic contrast enhanced-MRI (DCE-MRI) was conducted at baseline, after CA4P alone, and after cycle 1 CA4P + bevacizumab. RESULTS: A total of 63 mg/m(2) CA4P + 10 mg/kg bevacizumab q14 is the recommended phase II dose. A total of 15 patients were enrolled. Dose-limiting toxicities were grade III asymptomatic atrial fibrillation and grade IV liver hemorrhage in a patient with a history of hemorrhage. Most common toxicities were hypertension, headache, lymphopenia, pruritus, and pyrexia. Asymptomatic electrocardiographic changes were seen in five patients. Nine of 14 patients experienced disease stabilization. A patient with ovarian cancer had a CA125 response lasting for more than a year. DCE-MRI showed statistically significant reductions in tumor perfusion/vascular permeability, which reversed after CA4P alone but which were sustained following bevacizumab. Circulating CD34(+) and CD133(+) bone marrow progenitors increased following CA4P as did VEGF and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor levels. CONCLUSIONS: CA4P in combination with bevacizumab appears safe and well tolerated in this dosing schedule. CA4P induced profound vascular changes, which were maintained by the presence of bevacizumab..
van der Graaf, W.T., Blay, J.-., Chawla, S.P., Kim, D.-., Bui-Nguyen, B., Casali, P.G., Schoffski, P., Aglietta, M., Staddon, A.P., Beppu, Y., et al.
(2012). Pazopanib for metastatic soft-tissue sarcoma (PALETTE): a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 3 trial. Lancet,
Pacey, S., Wilson, R.H., Walton, M., Eatock, M.M., Hardcastle, A., Zetterlund, A., Arkenau, H.-., Moreno-Farre, J., Banerji, U., Roels, B., et al.
(2011). A phase I study of the heat shock protein 90 inhibitor alvespimycin (17-DMAG) given intravenously to patients with advanced solid tumors. Clin cancer res,
PURPOSE: A phase I study to define toxicity and recommend a phase II dose of the HSP90 inhibitor alvespimycin (17-DMAG; 17-dimethylaminoethylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin). Secondary endpoints included evaluation of pharmacokinetic profile, tumor response, and definition of a biologically effective dose (BED). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with advanced solid cancers were treated with weekly, intravenous (i.v.) 17-DMAG. An accelerated titration dose escalation design was used. The maximum tolerated dose (MTD) was the highest dose at which ≤ 1/6 patients experienced dose limiting toxicity (DLT). Dose de-escalation from the MTD was planned with mandatory, sequential tumor biopsies to determine a BED. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic assays were validated prior to patient accrual. RESULTS: Twenty-five patients received 17-DMAG (range 2.5-106 mg/m(2)). At 106 mg/m(2) of 17-DMAG 2/4 patients experienced DLT, including one treatment-related death. No DLT occurred at 80 mg/m(2). Common adverse events were gastrointestinal, liver function changes, and ocular. Area under the curve and mean peak concentration increased proportionally with 17-DMAG doses 80 mg/m(2) or less. In peripheral blood mononuclear cells significant (P < 0.05) HSP72 induction was detected (≥ 20 mg/m(2)) and sustained for 96 hours (≥ 40 mg/m(2)). Plasma HSP72 levels were greatest in the two patients who experienced DLT. At 80 mg/m(2) client protein (CDK4, LCK) depletion was detected and tumor samples from 3 of 5 patients confirmed HSP90 inhibition. Clinical activity included complete response (castration refractory prostate cancer, CRPC 124 weeks), partial response (melanoma, 159 weeks), and stable disease (chondrosarcoma, CRPC, and renal cancer for 28, 59, and 76 weeks, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: The recommended phase II dose of 17-DMAG is 80 mg/m(2) weekly i.v..
Olmos, D., Postel-Vinay, S., Molife, L.R., Okuno, S.H., Schuetze, S.M., Paccagnella, M.L., Batzel, G.N., Yin, D., Pritchard-Jones, K., Judson, I., et al.
(2010). Safety, pharmacokinetics, and preliminary activity of the anti-IGF-1R antibody figitumumab (CP-751,871) in patients with sarcoma and Ewing's sarcoma: a phase 1 expansion cohort study. Lancet oncol,
Figitumumab is a fully human IgG2 monoclonal antibody targeting the insulin-like growth-factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R). Preclinical data suggest a dependence on insulin-like growth-factor signalling for sarcoma subtypes, including Ewing's sarcoma, and early reports show antitumour activity of IGF-1R-targeting drugs in these diseases..
Lee, C.P., Payne, G.S., Oregioni, A., Ruddle, R., Tan, S., Raynaud, F.I., Eaton, D., Campbell, M.J., Cross, K., Halbert, G., et al.
(2009). A phase I study of the nitroimidazole hypoxia marker SR4554 using 19F magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Br j cancer,
BACKGROUND: SR4554 is a fluorine-containing 2-nitroimidazole, designed as a hypoxia marker detectable with 19F magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). In an initial phase I study of SR4554, nausea/vomiting was found to be dose-limiting, and 1400 mg m(-2) was established as MTD. Preliminary MRS studies demonstrated some evidence of 19F retention in tumour. In this study we investigated higher doses of SR4554 and intratumoral localisation of the 19F MRS signal. METHODS: Patients had tumours > or = 3 cm in diameter and < or = 4 cm deep. Measurements were performed using 1H/19F surface coils and localised 19F MRS acquisition. SR4554 was administered at 1400 mg m(-2), with subsequent increase to 2600 mg m(-2) using prophylactic metoclopramide. Spectra were obtained immediately post infusion (MRS no. 1), at 16 h (MRS no. 2) and 20 h (MRS no. 3), based on the SR4554 half-life of 3.5 h determined from a previous study. 19Fluorine retention index (%) was defined as (MRS no. 2/MRS no. 1)*100. RESULTS: A total of 26 patients enrolled at: 1400 (n=16), 1800 (n=1), 2200 (n=1) and 2600 mg m(-2) (n=8). SR4554 was well tolerated and toxicities were all < or = grade 1; mean plasma elimination half-life was 3.7+/-0.9 h. SR4554 signal was seen on both unlocalised and localised MRS no. 1 in all patients. Localised 19F signals were detected at MRS no. 2 in 5 out of 9 patients and 4 out of 5 patients at MRS no. 3. The mean retention index in tumour was 13.6 (range 0.6-43.7) compared with 4.1 (range 0.6-7.3) for plasma samples taken at the same times (P=0.001) suggesting (19)F retention in tumour and, therefore, the presence of hypoxia. CONCLUSION: We have demonstrated the feasibility of using 19F MRS with SR4554 as a potential method of detecting hypoxia. Certain patients showed evidence of 19F retention in tumour, supporting further development of this technique for detection of tumour hypoxia..
O'Donnell, A., Faivre, S., Burris, H.A., Rea, D., Papadimitrakopoulou, V., Shand, N., Lane, H.A., Hazell, K., Zoellner, U., Kovarik, J.M., et al.
(2008). Phase I pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic study of oral mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor everolimus in patients with advanced solid tumours. J clin oncol,