Ruark, E., Seal, S., McDonald, H., Zhang, F., Elliot, A., Lau, K., Perdeaux, E., Rapley, E., Eeles, R., Peto, J., et al.
(2013). Identification of nine new susceptibility loci for testicular cancer, including variants near DAZL and PRDM14. Nat genet,
Testicular germ cell tumor (TGCT) is the most common cancer in young men and is notable for its high familial risks. So far, six loci associated with TGCT have been reported. From genome-wide association study (GWAS) analysis of 307,291 SNPs in 986 TGCT cases and 4,946 controls, we selected for follow-up 694 SNPs, which we genotyped in a further 1,064 TGCT cases and 10,082 controls from the UK. We identified SNPs at nine new loci (1q22, 1q24.1, 3p24.3, 4q24, 5q31.1, 8q13.3, 16q12.1, 17q22 and 21q22.3) showing association with TGCT (P < 5 × 10(-8)), which together account for an additional 4-6% of the familial risk of TGCT. The loci include genes plausibly related to TGCT development. PRDM14, at 8q13.3, is essential for early germ cell specification, and DAZL, at 3p24.3, is required for the regulation of germ cell development. Furthermore, PITX1, at 5q31.1, regulates TERT expression and is the third TGCT-associated locus implicated in telomerase regulation..
Loveday, C., Turnbull, C., Ruark, E., Xicola, R.M., Ramsay, E., Hughes, D., Warren-Perry, M., Snape, K., Breast Cancer Susceptibility Collaboration (UK), , Eccles, D., et al.
(2012). Germline RAD51C mutations confer susceptibility to ovarian cancer. Nat genet,
Turnbull, C., Perdeaux, E.R., Pernet, D., Naranjo, A., Renwick, A., Seal, S., Munoz-Xicola, R.M., Hanks, S., Slade, I., Zachariou, A., et al.
(2012). A genome-wide association study identifies susceptibility loci for Wilms tumor. Nat genet,
Wilms tumor is the most common renal malignancy of childhood. To identify common variants that confer susceptibility to Wilms tumor, we conducted a genome-wide association study in 757 individuals with Wilms tumor (cases) and 1,879 controls. We evaluated ten SNPs in regions significantly associated at P < 5 × 10(-5) in two independent replication series from the UK (769 cases and 2,814 controls) and the United States (719 cases and 1,037 controls). We identified clear significant associations at 2p24 (rs3755132, P = 1.03 × 10(-14); rs807624, P = 1.32 × 10(-14)) and 11q14 (rs790356, P = 4.25 × 10(-15)). Both regions contain genes that are plausibly related to Wilms tumorigenesis. We also identified candidate association signals at 5q14, 22q12 and Xp22..
Loveday, C., Turnbull, C., Ramsay, E., Hughes, D., Ruark, E., Frankum, J.R., Bowden, G., Kalmyrzaev, B., Warren-Perry, M., Snape, K., et al.
(2011). Germline mutations in RAD51D confer susceptibility to ovarian cancer. Nat genet,
Recently, RAD51C mutations were identified in families with breast and ovarian cancer. This observation prompted us to investigate the role of RAD51D in cancer susceptibility. We identified eight inactivating RAD51D mutations in unrelated individuals from 911 breast-ovarian cancer families compared with one inactivating mutation identified in 1,060 controls (P = 0.01). The association found here was principally with ovarian cancer, with three mutations identified in the 59 pedigrees with three or more individuals with ovarian cancer (P = 0.0005). The relative risk of ovarian cancer for RAD51D mutation carriers was estimated to be 6.30 (95% CI 2.86-13.85, P = 4.8 × 10(-6)). By contrast, we estimated the relative risk of breast cancer to be 1.32 (95% CI 0.59-2.96, P = 0.50). These data indicate that RAD51D mutation testing may have clinical utility in individuals with ovarian cancer and their families. Moreover, we show that cells deficient in RAD51D are sensitive to treatment with a PARP inhibitor, suggesting a possible therapeutic approach for cancers arising in RAD51D mutation carriers..
Turnbull, C., Ahmed, S., Morrison, J., Pernet, D., Renwick, A., Maranian, M., Seal, S., Ghoussaini, M., Hines, S., Healey, C.S., et al.
(2010). Genome-wide association study identifies five new breast cancer susceptibility loci. Nat genet,
Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women in developed countries. To identify common breast cancer susceptibility alleles, we conducted a genome-wide association study in which 582,886 SNPs were genotyped in 3,659 cases with a family history of the disease and 4,897 controls. Promising associations were evaluated in a second stage, comprising 12,576 cases and 12,223 controls. We identified five new susceptibility loci, on chromosomes 9, 10 and 11 (P = 4.6 x 10(-7) to P = 3.2 x 10(-15)). We also identified SNPs in the 6q25.1 (rs3757318, P = 2.9 x 10(-6)), 8q24 (rs1562430, P = 5.8 x 10(-7)) and LSP1 (rs909116, P = 7.3 x 10(-7)) regions that showed more significant association with risk than those reported previously. Previously identified breast cancer susceptibility loci were also found to show larger effect sizes in this study of familial breast cancer cases than in previous population-based studies, consistent with polygenic susceptibility to the disease..
Turnbull, C., Rapley, E.A., Seal, S., Pernet, D., Renwick, A., Hughes, D., Ricketts, M., Linger, R., Nsengimana, J., Deloukas, P., et al.
(2010). Variants near DMRT1, TERT and ATF7IP are associated with testicular germ cell cancer. Nat genet,
We conducted a genome-wide association study for testicular germ cell tumor, genotyping 298,782 SNPs in 979 affected individuals and 4,947 controls from the UK and replicating associations in a further 664 cases and 3,456 controls. We identified three new susceptibility loci, two of which include genes that are involved in telomere regulation. We identified two independent signals within the TERT-CLPTM1L locus on chromosome 5, which has previously been associated with multiple other cancers (rs4635969, OR=1.54, P=1.14x10(-23); rs2736100, OR=1.33, P=7.55x10(-15)). We also identified a locus on chromosome 12 (rs2900333, OR=1.27, P=6.16x10(-10)) that contains ATF7IP, a regulator of TERT expression. Finally, we identified a locus on chromosome 9 (rs755383, OR=1.37, P=1.12x10(-23)), containing the sex determination gene DMRT1, which has been linked to teratoma susceptibility in mice..
Turnbull, C. & Rahman, N.
(2008). Genetic predisposition to breast cancer: Past, present, and future. Annu rev genom hum g,
In recent years, our understanding of genetic predisposition to breast cancer has advanced significantly. Three classes of predisposition factors, categorized by their associated risks of breast cancer, are currently known. BRCA1 and BRCA2 are high-penetrance breast cancer predisposition genes identified by genome-wide linkage analysis and positional cloning. Mutational screening of genes functionally related to BRCA1 and/or BRCA2 has revealed four genes, CHEK2, ATM, BRIP1, and PALB2; mutations in these genes are rare and confer an intermediate risk of breast cancer. Association studies have further identified eight common variants associated with low-penetrance breast cancer predisposition. Despite these discoveries, most of the familial risk of breast cancer remains unexplained. In this review, we describe the known genetic predisposition factors, expound on the methods by which they were identified, and consider how further technological and intellectual advances may assist in identifying the remaining genetic factors underlying breast cancer susceptibility..