Bartlett, F.R., Donovan, E.M., McNair, H.A., Corsini, L.A., Colgan, R.M., Evans, P.M., Maynard, L., Griffin, C., Haviland, J.S., Yarnold, J.R., et al.
(2017). The UK HeartSpare Study (Stage II): Multicentre Evaluation of a Voluntary Breath-hold Technique in Patients Receiving Breast Radiotherapy. Clinical oncology,
Hafeez, S., McDonald, F., Lalondrelle, S., McNair, H., Warren-Oseni, K., Jones, K., Harris, V., Taylor, H., Khoo, V., Thomas, K., et al.
(2017). Clinical Outcomes of Image Guided Adaptive Hypofractionated Weekly Radiation Therapy for Bladder Cancer in Patients Unsuitable for Radical Treatment. International journal of radiation oncology*biology*physics,
Hafeez, S., Warren-Oseni, K., McNair, H.A., Hansen, V.N., Jones, K., Tan, M., Khan, A., Harris, V., McDonald, F., Lalondrelle, S., et al.
(2016). Prospective Study Delivering Simultaneous Integrated High-dose Tumor Boost (≤70 Gy) With Image Guided Adaptive Radiation Therapy for Radical Treatment of Localized Muscle-Invasive Bladder Cancer. International journal of radiation oncology*biology*physics,
Kember, S.A., Hansen, V.N., Fast, M.F., Nill, S., McDonald, F., Ahmed, M., Thomas, K. & McNair, H.A.
(2016). Evaluation of three presets for four-dimensional cone beam CT in lung radiotherapy verification by visual grading analysis. Br j radiol,
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate three image acquisition presets for four-dimensional cone beam CT (CBCT) to identify an optimal preset for lung tumour image quality while minimizing dose and acquisition time. METHODS: Nine patients undergoing radical conventionally fractionated radiotherapy for lung cancer had verification CBCTs acquired using three presets: Preset 1 on Day 1 (11 mGy dose, 240 s acquisition time), Preset 2 on Day 2 (9 mGy dose, 133 s acquisition time) and Preset 3 on Day 3 (9 mGy dose, 67 s acquisition time). The clarity of the tumour and other thoracic structures, and the acceptability of the match, were retrospectively graded by visual grading analysis (VGA). Logistic regression was used to identify the most appropriate preset and any factors that might influence the result. RESULTS: Presets 1 and 2 met a clinical requirement of 75% of structures to be rated "Clear" or above and 75% of matches to be rated "Acceptable" or above. Clarity is significantly affected by preset, patient, observer and structure. Match acceptability is significantly affected by preset. CONCLUSION: The application of VGA in this initial study enabled a provisional selection of an optimal preset (Preset 2) to be made. ADVANCES IN KNOWLEDGE: This was the first application of VGA to the investigation of presets for CBCT..
Landeg, S.J., Kirby, A.M., Lee, S.F., Bartlett, F., Titmarsh, K., Donovan, E., Griffin, C.L., Gothard, L., Locke, I. & McNair, H.A., et al.
(2016). A randomized control trial evaluating fluorescent ink versus dark ink tattoos for breast radiotherapy. Br j radiol,
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this UK study was to evaluate interfraction reproducibility and body image score when using ultraviolet (UV) tattoos (not visible in ambient lighting) for external references during breast/chest wall radiotherapy and compare with conventional dark ink. METHODS: In this non-blinded, single-centre, parallel group, randomized control trial, patients were allocated to receive either conventional dark ink or UV ink tattoos using computer-generated random blocks. Participant assignment was not masked. Systematic (∑) and random (σ) setup errors were determined using electronic portal images. Body image questionnaires were completed at pre-treatment, 1 month and 6 months to determine the impact of tattoo type on body image. The primary end point was to determine that UV tattoo random error (σsetup) was no less accurate than with conventional dark ink tattoos, i.e. <2.8 mm. RESULTS: 46 patients were randomized to receive conventional dark or UV ink tattoos. 45 patients completed treatment (UV: n = 23, dark: n = 22). σsetup for the UV tattoo group was <2.8 mm in the u and v directions (p = 0.001 and p = 0.009, respectively). A larger proportion of patients reported improvement in body image score in the UV tattoo group compared with the dark ink group at 1 month [56% (13/23) vs 14% (3/22), respectively] and 6 months [52% (11/21) vs 38% (8/21), respectively]. CONCLUSION: UV tattoos were associated with interfraction setup reproducibility comparable with conventional dark ink. Patients reported a more favourable change in body image score up to 6 months following treatment. Advances in knowledge: This study is the first to evaluate UV tattoo external references in a randomized control trial..
Kaza, E., Collins, D., Symonds-Tayler, R., McDonald, F., Scurr, E., McNair, H., Hansen, V. & Leach, M.
(2015). 143: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) using active breathing coordinator motion control. Lung cancer,
Bartlett, F.R., Colgan, R.M., Donovan, E.M., McNair, H.A., Carr, K., Evans, P.M., Griffin, C., Locke, I., Haviland, J.S., Yarnold, J.R., et al.
(2015). The UK HeartSpare Study (Stage IB): Randomised comparison of a voluntary breath-hold technique and prone radiotherapy after breast conserving surgery. Radiotherapy and oncology,
McNair, H.A., Hafeez, S., Taylor, H., Lalondrelle, S., McDonald, F., Hansen, V.N. & Huddart, R.
(2015). Radiographer-led plan selection for bladder cancer radiotherapy: initiating a training programme and maintaining competency. The british journal of radiology,
Harris, V.A., Staffurth, J., Naismith, O., Esmail, A., Gulliford, S., Khoo, V., Lewis, R., Littler, J., McNair, H., Sadoyze, A., et al.
(2015). Consensus Guidelines and Contouring Atlas for Pelvic Node Delineation in Prostate and Pelvic Node Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy. International journal of radiation oncology*biology*physics,
McNair, H.A., Harris, E.J., Hansen, V.N., Thomas, K., South, C., Hafeez, S., Huddart, R. & Dearnaley, D.P.
(2015). Magnitude of observer error using cone beam CT for prostate interfraction motion estimation: effect of reducing scan length or increasing exposure. The british journal of radiology,
Lacey, C., Ockwell, C., Locke, I., Thomas, K., Hendry, J. & McNair, H.
(2015). A prospective study comparing radiographer- and clinician-based localization for patients with metastatic spinal cord compression (MSCC) to assess the feasibility of a radiographer-led service. The british journal of radiology,
Kaza, E., Symonds-Tayler, R., Collins, D.J., McDonald, F., McNair, H.A., Scurr, E., Koh, D.-. & Leach, M.O.
(2015). First MRI application of an active breathing coordinator. Physics in medicine and biology,
Yeoh, K.-., McNair, H.A., McDonald, F., Hawkins, M., Hansen, V.N., Ramos, M., Fragkandrea, I., Bothwell, S., Herbert, T., Taylor, H., et al.
(2014). Cone beam CT verification for active breathing control (ABC)-gated radiotherapy for lung cancer. Acta oncologica,
Hafeez, S., McNair, H., Warren-Oseni, K., Hansen, V. & Huddart, R.
(2014). Audit of Radiographer Led Plan Selection in Imaged Guided Adaptive Radiotherapy (IGART) for Bladder Cancer. Clinical oncology,
McNair, H.A., Wedlake, L., Lips, I.M., Andreyev, J., Van Vulpen, M. & Dearnaley, D.
(2014). A systematic review: Effectiveness of rectal emptying preparation in prostate cancer patients. Practical radiation oncology,
Rosenfelder, N.A., Corsini, L., McNair, H., Pennert, K., Burke, K., Lamb, C.M., Aitken, A., Ashley, S., Khoo, V. & Brada, M., et al.
(2013). Achieving the Relocation Accuracy of Stereotactic Frame-based Cranial Radiotherapy in a Three-point Thermoplastic Shell. Clinical oncology,
Lee, Y.K., Bedford, J.L., McNair, H.A. & Hawkins, M.A.
(2013). Comparison of deliverable IMRT and VMAT for spine metastases using a simultaneous integrated boost. The british journal of radiology,
Rosenfelder, N.A., Corsini, L., McNair, H., Pennert, K., Aitken, A., Lamb, C.M., Long, M., Clarke, E., Murcia, M., Schick, U., et al.
(2013). Comparison of setup accuracy and intrafraction motion using stereotactic frame versus 3-point thermoplastic mask-based immobilization for fractionated cranial image guided radiation therapy. Practical radiation oncology,
Bartlett, F.R., Colgan, R.M., Carr, K., Donovan, E.M., McNair, H.A., Locke, I., Evans, P.M., Haviland, J.S., Yarnold, J.R. & Kirby, A.M., et al.
(2013). The UK HeartSpare Study: Randomised evaluation of voluntary deep-inspiratory breath-hold in women undergoing breast radiotherapy. Radiotherapy and oncology,
McDonald, F., Lalondrelle, S., Taylor, H., Warren-Oseni, K., Khoo, V., McNair, H.A., Harris, V., Hafeez, S., Hansen, V.N., Thomas, K., et al.
(2013). Clinical Implementation of Adaptive Hypofractionated Bladder Radiotherapy for Improvement in Normal Tissue Irradiation. Clinical oncology,
Mcnair, H.A., Kavanagh, A., Powell, C., Symonds-Tayler, J.R., Brada, M. & Evans, P.M.
(2012). Fluoroscopy as a surrogate for lung tumour motion. The british journal of radiology,
Brock, J., Bedford, J., Partridge, M., McDonald, F., Ashley, S., McNair, H.A. & Brada, M.
(2012). Optimising Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy for Non-small Cell Lung Cancer with Volumetric Intensity-modulated Arc Therapy—A Planning Study. Clinical oncology,
Buettner, F., Alexander, E., McNair, H., Bulbrook, L., Gulliford, S., Partridge, M. & Dearnaley, D.
(2012). SU-E-T-255: A Novel Rectal Obturator for Prostate Radiotherapy Improves the Spatial Distribution of Dose and Reduces the Predicted Risk for Rectal Bleeding and Subjective Sphincter Control. Med phys,
PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of an endorectal device during prostate radiotherapy on the spatial distribution of dose to the ano-rectal region and quantify implications for normal-tissue-complication probabilities. METHODS: Twenty-three patients with localised prostate cancer, referred for external beam radiotherapy had 2 CT scans acquired, without and with the rectal obturator (ProSpare) in-situ. For each patient two dose distributions were generated, based on both CT scans. Dose-surface maps for the rectal surface and the anal surface were generated and mean dose as well as a spatial measure (circumference of the dose distribution) were determined for all patients, with and without ProSpare. Using previously published NTCP models, the effect of ProSpare on NTCP was investigated for rectal bleeding and subjective sphincter control. RESULTS: In a previous study subjective sphincter control correlated strongest with mean dose and lateral extent at 53 Gy. The use of ProSpare resulted in a highly significant reduction of the lateral extent at 53 Gy (p=0.006), mean dose (p=0.0009) and NTCP according to the LKB model (p=0.002 for grade 2 and p=0.001 for grade >=1). In a previous study we reported that rectal bleeding correlated most strongly with the lateral extent at 55 Gy and presented the constraint that it should not exceed 42% of the circumference. Using ProSpare resulted in a significant reduction of the lateral extent at 55 Gy (p=0.001) and significantly more patients met that proposed constraint (p=0.047). ProSpare resulted in a significant reduction of NTCP for grade-2 rectal bleeding (p=0.007) and a reduction for rectal bleeding grade >=1 (p=0.053). CONCLUSIONS: ProSpare resulted in a significant reduction of mean dose to the anal sphincter and a significant reduction of the lateral extent at 55 Gy. This corresponded to a significant reduction in the predicted risk of reporting subjective sphincter control and grade-2 rectal bleeding..
Franks, K.N. & McNair, H.A.
(2012). Implementation of Image-guided Radiotherapy. Clinical oncology,
Lalondrelle, S., Huddart, R., Warren-Oseni, K., Hansen, V.N., McNair, H., Thomas, K., Dearnaley, D., Horwich, A. & Khoo, V.
(2011). ADAPTIVE-PREDICTIVE ORGAN LOCALIZATION USING CONE-BEAM COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY FOR IMPROVED ACCURACY IN EXTERNAL BEAM RADIOTHERAPY FOR BLADDER CANCER. Int j radiat oncol,
Purpose: To examine patterns of bladder wall motion during high-dose hypofractionated bladder radiotherapy and to validate a novel adaptive planning method, A-POLO, to prevent subsequent geographic miss.Methods and Materials: Patterns of individual bladder filling were obtained with repeat computed tomography planning scans at 0, 15, and 30 minutes after voiding. A series of patient-specific plans corresponding to these time-displacement points was created. Pretreatment cone-beam computed tomography was performed before each fraction and assessed retrospectively for adaptive intervention. In fractions that would have required intervention, the most appropriate plan was chosen from the patient's "library," and the resulting target coverage was reassessed with repeat cone-beam computed tomography.Results: A large variation in patterns of bladder filling and interfraction displacement was seen. During radiotherapy, predominant translations occurred cranially (maximum 2.5 cm) and anteriorly (maximum 1.75 cm). No apparent explanation was found for this variation using pretreatment patient factors. A need for adaptive planning was demonstrated by 51% of fractions, and 73% of fractions would have been delivered correctly using A-POLO. The adaptive strategy improved target coverage and was able to account for intrafraction motion also.Conclusions: Bladder volume variation will result in geographic miss in a high proportion of delivered bladder radiotherapy treatments. The A-POLO strategy can be used to correct for this and can be implemented from the first fraction of radiotherapy; thus, it is particularly suited to hypofractionated bladder radiotherapy regimens. (C) 2011 Elsevier Inc..
Brock, J., McNair, H.A., Panakis, N., Symonds-Tayler, R., Evans, P.M. & Brada, M.
(2011). THE USE OF THE ACTIVE BREATHING COORDINATOR THROUGHOUT RADICAL NON SMALL-CELL LUNG CANCER (NSCLC) RADIOTHERAPY. Int j radiat oncol,
Purpose: To assess feasibility and reproducibility of an Active Breathing Coordinator (ABC) used throughout radical radiotherapy for non small-cell lung cancer, and compare lung dosimetric parameters between free-breathing and ABC plans.Methods and Materials: A total of 18 patients, recruited into an approved study, had free-breathing and ABC breath-hold treatment plans generated. Lung volume, the percentage volume of lung treated to a dose of >= 20 Gy (V-20), and mean lung dose (MLD) were compared. Treatment (64 Cy in 32 fractions, 5 days/week) was delivered in breath-hold. Repeat breath-hold computed tomography scans were used to assess change in gross tumor volume (GTV) size and position. Setup error was also measured and potential GTV-planning target volume (PTV) margins calculated.Results: Seventeen of 18 patients completed radiotherapy using ABC daily. Intrafraction tumor position was consistent, but interfraction variation had mean (range) values of 5.1 (0-25), 3.6 (0-9.7), and 3.5 (0-16.6) mm in the superoinferior (SI), right-left (RL), and anteroposterior (AP) directions, respectively. Tumor moved partially outside the PTV in 5 patients. Mean reduction in GTV from planning to end of treatment was 25% (p = 0.003). Potentially required PTV margins were 18.1, 11.9, and 11.9 mm in SI, RL, and AP directions. ABC reduced V20 by 13% (p = 0.0001), V-13 by 12% (p = 0.001), and MLD by 13% (p < 0.001) compared with free-breathing; lung volume increased by 41% (p < 0.001).Conclusions: Clinically significant movements of GTV were seen during radiotherapy for non small-cell lung cancer using ABC. Image guidance is recommended with ABC. The use of ABC can reduce dose volume parameters determining lung toxicity, and might allow for equitoxic radiotherapy dose escalation. (C) 2011 Elsevier Inc..
Hawkins, M.A., Aitken, A., Hansen, V.N., McNair, H.A. & Tait, D.M.
(2011). Set-up errors in radiotherapy for oesophageal cancers – Is electronic portal imaging or conebeam more accurate?. Radiotherapy and oncology,
Boda-Heggemann, J., Fleckenstein, J., Lohr, F., Wertz, H., Nachit, M., Blessing, M., Stsepankou, D., Lob, I., Kupper, B., Kavanagh, A., et al.
(2011). Multiple breath-hold CBCT for online image guided radiotherapy of lung tumors: Simulation with a dynamic phantom and first patient data. Radiother oncol,
Background and Purpose: Computer controlled breath-hold effectively reduces organ motion for image-guided precision radiotherapy of lung tumors. However, the acquisition time of 3D cone-beam-CT (CBCT) exceeds maximum breath-hold times. We have developed an approach enabling online verification using CBCT image acquisition with ABC (R)-based breath-hold.Methods: Patient CBCT images were acquired with ABC (R)-based repeat breath-hold. The clinical situation was also simulated with a Motion Phantom. Reconstruction of patient and phantom images with selection of free-breathing and breath-hold projections only was performed.Results: CBCT-imaging in repeat breath-hold resulted in a precisely spherical appearance of a tumor-mimicking structure in the phantom. A faint "ghost" structure (free-breathing phases) can be clearly discriminated. Mean percentage of patient breath-hold time was 66%. Reconstruction based on free-breathing-only shows blurring of both tumor and diaphragm, reconstruction based on breath-hold projections only resulted in sharp contours of the same structures. From the phantom experiments, a maximal repositioning error of 1 mm in each direction can be estimated.Discussion and Conclusion: CBCT during repetitive breath hold provides reliable soft-tissue-based positioning. Fast 3D-imaging during one breath-hold is currently under development and has the potential to accelerate clinical linac-based volume imaging. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved. Radiotherapy and Oncology 98 (2011) 309-316.
McNair, H.A., Wedlake, L., McVey, G.P., Thomas, K., Andreyev, J. & Dearnaley, D.P.
(2011). Can diet combined with treatment scheduling achieve consistency of rectal filling in patients receiving radiotherapy to the prostate?. Radiother oncol,
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: This pilot study investigates whether an individualized fluid and fibre prescription combined with a constant treatment can improve rectal filling consistency during radiotherapy. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Fibre, fluid intake and bowel function were assessed in 22 patients at a standard planning scan (SCT) and individualized dietary advice was prescribed to regularize bowel habit. Patients were requested to record frequency and type of bowel movements, fibre and fluid intake daily. Two subsequent CT scans were acquired at 7 (CCT1) and 10days (CCT2) after SCT at a similar time. Rectal volume and gas were measured planning CT's and 'on treatment' cone beam CT scans. We hypothesised that the difference in volume between CCT1 and CCT2 would be less than the difference between SCT and CCT1. RESULTS: The mean (SD) change in volume between SCT to CCT1 and CCT1 to CCT2 was 5.68cm(3) (26.2) and -8.6cm(3) (40.1), respectively (p=0.292). Of the 22 patients scanned 20 provided a complete record of dietary intake and bowel motion. The majority of patients either achieved or exceeded prescription. Change in rectal gas was the only correlation with change in rectal volume. CONCLUSION: Patient self reporting of bowel motion, fibre, fluid intake was achievable but consistency of rectal filling was not improved. Improved understanding of the aetiology and management of rectal gas is indicated..
Chong, I., Hawkins, M., Hansen, V., Thomas, K., McNair, H., O’Neill, B., Aitken, A. & Tait, D.
(2011). Quantification of Organ Motion During Chemoradiotherapy of Rectal Cancer Using Cone-Beam Computed Tomography. International journal of radiation oncology*biology*physics,
Hawkins, M.A., Aitken, A., Hansen, V.N., McNair, H.A. & Tait, D.M.
(2011). Cone beam CT verification for oesophageal cancer – impact of volume selected for image registration. Acta oncologica,
Bhide, S.A., Davies, M., Burke, K., McNair, H.A., Hansen, V., Barbachano, Y., El-Hariry, I.A., Newbold, K., Harrington, K.J. & Nutting, C.M., et al.
(2010). WEEKLY VOLUME AND DOSIMETRIC CHANGES DURING CHEMORADIOTHERAPY WITH INTENSITY-MODULATED RADIATION THERAPY FOR HEAD AND NECK CANCER: A PROSPECTIVE OBSERVATIONAL STUDY. Int j radiat oncol,
Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate prospectively the weekly volume changes in the target volumes and organs at risk and the resulting dosimetric changes during induction chemotherapy followed by chemoradiotherapy with intensity-modulated radiation therapy (C-IMRT) for head-and-neck cancer patients.Methods and Materials: Patients receiving C-IMRT for head-and-neck cancer had repeat CT scans at weeks 2, 3, 4, and 5 during radiotherapy. The volume changes of clinical target volume 1 (CTV1) and CTV2 and the resulting dosimetric changes to planning target volume 1 (PTV1) and PTV2 and the organs at risk were measured.Results: The most significant volume differences were seen at week 2 for CTV1 and CTV2. The reductions in the volumes of CTV1 and CTV2 at week 2 were 3.2% and 10%, respectively (p = 0.003 and p < 0.001). The volume changes resulted in a significant reduction in the minimum dose to PTV1 and PTV2 (2 Gy, p = 0.002, and 3.9 Gy, p = 0.03, respectively) and an increased dose range across PTV1 and PTV2 (2.5 Gy, p < 0.001, and 5.1 Gy, p = 0.008, respectively). There was a 15% reduction in the parotid volumes by week 2 (p < 0.001) and 31% by week 4 (p < 0.001). There was a statistically significant increase in the mean dose to the ipsilateral parotid only at week 4 (2.7 Gy, p = 0.006). The parotid glands shifted medially by an average of 2.3 mm (p < 0.001) by week 4.Conclusion: The most significant volumetric changes and dosimetric alterations in the tumor volumes and organs at risk during a course of C-IMRT occur by week 2 of radiotherapy. Further adaptive radiotherapy with replanning, if appropriate, is recommended. (C) 2010 Elsevier Inc..
Korreman, S., Rasch, C., McNair, H., Verellen, D., Oelfke, U., Maingon, P., Mijnheer, B. & Khoo, V.
(2010). The European Society of Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology–European Institute of Radiotherapy (ESTRO–EIR) report on 3D CT-based in-room image guidance systems: A practical and technical review and guide. Radiotherapy and oncology,
Urbano, T.G., Khoo, V., Staffurth, J., Norman, A., Buffa, F., Jackson, A., Adams, E., Hansen, V., Clark, C., Miles, E., et al.
(2010). Intensity-modulated Radiotherapy Allows Escalation of the Radiation Dose to the Pelvic Lymph Nodes in Patients with Locally Advanced Prostate Cancer: Preliminary Results of a Phase I Dose Escalation Study. Clin oncol-uk,
Aim: Pelvic irradiation in addition to prostate irradiation may improve outcome in locally advanced prostate cancer, but is associated with dose-limiting bowel toxicity. We report the preliminary results of a dose escalation study using intensity-modulated radiotherapy.Materials and methods: Eligible patients had high-risk (T3, Gleason >= 8 or prostate-specific antigen >= 20 ng/ml) or lymph node-positive disease. Intensity-modulated radiotherapy was inverse planned giving 70 Gy/35 fractions to the prostate and 50 Gy/55 Gy/60 Gy in sequential cohorts to the pelvis with a 5 Gy boost to positive lymph nodes. Acute and late toxicity were recorded with Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) and Late Effects Normal Tissue - Subjective Objective Management LENT-SOM scales. Neoadjuvant androgen suppression was given for 3 years. This report concerns the 50 and 55 Gy cohorts.Results: Seventy-nine men were recruited (25 to 50 Gy/54 to 55 Gy) with a median follow-up of 2 years. Patients were divided into two groups according to the total bowel volume outlined (median 450 cm(3)). Acute RTOG (>= 2) bowel toxicity was 40 and 50% for the 50 and 55 Gy groups and 38 and 51% for bowel volume <450 cm(3) and >= 450 cm(3), respectively, suggesting both volume and dose relationships for acute effects. Late RTOG diarrhoea >= grade 2 was only seen with bowel volume >= 450 cm(3), but no dose effect was apparent (12%/50 Gy and 10%/55 Gy). LENT-SOM bowel >= grade 2 toxicity occurred in 22%/50 Gy and 15%/55 Gy. Only one patient had grade 3 toxicity. A close volume histogram analysis showed increased late RTOG diarrhoea >= grade 2 with larger bowel volume irradiated, significant for BV40 124 cm(3) (P = 0.04), BV45 >71 cm(3) (P = 0.03) and BV60 >2 cm(3) (P = 0.01).Conclusions: Acute and late bowel toxicity was acceptably low using a pelvic dose of up to 55 Gy over 7 weeks. Both relate to total pelvic bowel volume and dose volume constraints have been defined. (C) 2010 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved..
Lalondrelle, S., McNair, H., Hansen, V., Huddart, R., Dearnaley, D. & Khoo, V.
(2009). The Clinical Implementation of Cone Beam CT (CBCT) Technology through Adaptive Radiotherapy Planning (ART). Clin oncol-uk,
Lalondrelle, S., Taylor, H., McNair, H., Hansen, V.N., Huddart, R. & Khoo, V.
(2009). Steps to Clinical Implementation of Online Image Guided Adaptive Radiotherapy. Clin oncol-uk,
Partridge, M., Tree, A., Brock, J., McNair, H., Fernandez, E., Panakis, N. & Brada, M.
(2009). Improvement in tumour control probability with active breathing control and dose escalation: A modelling study. Radiother oncol,
Introduction: The prognosis from non-small cell lung cancer remains poor, even in those patients suitable for radical radiotherapy. The ability of radiotherapy to achieve local control is hampered by the sensitivity of normal structures to irradiation at the high tumour doses needed. This Study aimed to look at the potential gain in tumour control probability from dose escalation facilitated by moderate deep inspiration breath-hold.Method: The data from 28 patients, recruited into two separate Studies were used. These patients underwent planning with and without the use of moderate deep inspiration breath-hold with an active breathing control (ABC) device. Whilst maintaining the mean lung dose (MLD) at the level of the conventional plan, the ABC plan dose was theoretically escalated to a maximum of 84 Gy, constrained by usual normal tissue tolerances. Calculations were performed using data for both lungs and for the ipsilateral lung only. Resulting local progression-free survival at 30 months Was Calculated using a standard logistic model.Results: The prescription dose could be escalated from 64 Gy to a mean of 73.7 +/- 6.5 Gy without margin reduction, which represents a statistically significant increase in tumour control probability from 0.15 +/- 0.01 to 0.29 +/- 0.11 (p<0.0001). The results were not statistically different whether both lungs or just the ipsilateral lung was used for calculations.Conclusion: A near-doubling of tumour control probability is possible with modest dose escalation, which can be achieved with no extra increase in lung dose if deep inspiration breath-hold techniques are used. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved. Radiotherapy and Oncology 91 (2009) 325-329.
McNair, H.A., Brock, J., Symonds-Taylor, J.R., Ashley, S., Eagle, S., Evans, P.M., Kavanagh, A., Panakis, N. & Brada, M.
(2009). Feasibility of the use of the Active Breathing Co ordinator (TM) (ABC) in patients receiving radical radiotherapy for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Radiother oncol,
Introduction: One method to overcome the problem of lung tumour movement in patients treated with radiotherapy is to restrict tumour motion with an active breathing control (ABC) device. This study evaluated the feasibility of using ABC in patients receiving radical radiotherapy for non-small cell lung cancer.Methods, Eighteen patients, median (range) age of 66 (44- 82) years, consented to the study. A training session was conducted to establish the patient's breath hold level and breath hold time Three planning scans were acquired using the ABC device Reproducibility of breath hold was assessed by comparing lung volumes measured front the planning scans and the volume recorded by ABC Patients were treated with a 3-field coplanar beam arrangement and treatment time (patient on and off the bed) and number of breath holds recorded The tolerability of the device was assessed by weekly questionnaire. Quality assurance was performed on the two ABC devices used.Results: 17/18 patients completed 32 fractions of radiotherapy using ABC All patients tolerated a maximum breath hold tinge >15 s. The mean (SD) patient training time was 13 8 (4 8) min and no patient found the ABC very uncomfortable. Six to thirteen breath holds of 10-14 s were required per session. The mean treatment tinge was 15.8 ruin (5.8 min) The breath hold volumes were reproducible during treatment and also between the two ABC devicesConclusion: The use of ABC in patients receiving radical radiotherapy for NSCLC is feasible. It was not possible to predict a patient's ability to hold breath. A minimum tolerated breath hold tinge of 15 s is recommended prior to commencing treatment. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved. Radiotherapy and Oncology 93 (2009) 424-429.
Mcnair, H.A., Hansen, V.N., Parker, C.C., Evans, P.M., Norman, A., Miles, E., Harris, E.J., Del-Acroix, L., Smith, E., Keane, R., et al.
(2008). A comparison of the use of bony anatomy and internal markers for offline verification and an evaluation of the potential benefit of online and offline verification protocols for prostate radiotherapy. Int j radiat oncol,
Purpose: To evaluate the utility of intraprostatic markers in the treatment verification of prostate cancer radiotherapy. Specific aims were: to compare the effectiveness of offline correction protocols, either using gold markers or bony anatomy; to estimate the potential benefit of online correction protocol's using gold markers; to determine the presence and effect of intrafraction motion.Methods and Materials: Thirty patients with three gold markers inserted had pretreatment and posttreatment images acquired and were treated using an offline correction protocol and gold markers. Retrospectively, an offline protocol was applied using bony anatomy and an online protocol using gold markers.Results: The systematic errors were reduced from 1.3, 1.9, and 2.5 mm to 1.1, 1.1, and 1.5 mm in the right-left (RL), superoinferior (SI), and anteroposterior (AP) directions, respectively, using the offline correction protocol and gold markers instead of bony anatomy. The subsequent decrease in margins was 1.7, 3.3, and 4 mm in the RL, SI, and AP directions, respectively. An offline correction protocol combined with an online correction protocol in the first four fractions reduced random errors further to 0.9, 1.1, and 1.0 turn in the RL, SI, and AP directions, respectively. A daily online protocol reduced all errors to <1 mm. Intrafraction motion had greater impact on the effectiveness of the online protocol than the offline protocols.Conclusions: An offline protocol using gold markers is effective in reducing the systematic error. The value of online protocols is reduced by intrafraction motion. (c) 2008 Elsevier Inc..
Panakis, N., McNair, H.A., Christian, J.A., Mendes, R., Symonds-Tayler, J.R., Knowles, C., Evans, P.M., Bedford, J. & Brada, M.
(2008). Defining the margins in the radical radiotherapy of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with active breathing control (ABC) and the effect on physical lung parameters. Radiother oncol,
Background: The effectiveness of ABC has been traditionally measured as the reduction in internal margin (IM) within the planning target volume (PTV). Not to overestimate the benefit of ABC, the effect of patient movement during treatment also needs to be taken into account. We determined the IM and set-up error with ABC and the effect on physical lung parameters compared to standard margins used with free breathing. We also assessed interfraction oesophageal movement to determine a planning organ at risk volume (PRV).Materials and methods: Two sequential studies were performed using ABC in NSCLC patients suitable for radical radiotherapy (RT). Twelve out of 14 patients in Study 1 had tumours visible fluoroscopically and had intrafraction tumour movement assessed with and without ABC. Sixteen patients were recruited to Study 2 and had interfraction tumour movement measured using ABC in a moderate deep inspiration breath-hold, of these 7 patients also had interfraction oesophageal movement recorded. Interfraction movement was assessed by CT scan prior to and in the middle and final week of RT. Displacement of the tumour centre of mass and oesophageal borders relative to the first scan provided a measure of movement. Set-up error was measured in 9 patients treated with an in-house lung board adapted for the ABC device. Combining movement and set-up errors determined PTV and PRV margins with ABC. The effect of ABC on mean lung dose (MILD), lung V-20 and V-13 was calculated.Results: ABC in a moderate deep inspiration breath-hold was tolerated in 25 out of 30 patients (83%) in Study 1 and 2. The random contribution of periodic tumour motion was reduced by 90% in the y direction with ABC compared to free-breathing. The magnitude of motion reduction was less in the x and z direction. Combining the systematic and random set-up error in quadrature with the systematic and random intrafraction and interfraction tumour variations with ABC results in a PTV margin of 8.3 mm in the x direction, 12.0 mm in the y direction and 9.8 mm in the z direction. There was a relative mean reduction in MILD, lung V-20 and V-13 of 25%, 21% and 18% with the ABC PTV compared to a free-breathing PTV. Oesophageal movement combined with set-up error resulted in an isotropic PRV of 4.7 mm.Conclusions: The reduction in PTV size with ABC resulted in an 18-25% relative reduction in physical lung parameters. PTV margin reduction has the potential to spare normal lung and allow dose-escalation if coupled with image-guided RT. The oesophageal PRV needs to be considered when irradiating central disease and is of increasing importance with altered RT fractionation and concomitant chemoradiation schedules. Further reductions in PTV and PRV may be possible if patient set-up error was minimised, confirming that attention to patient immobilisation is as important as attempts to control tumour motion. (C) 2007 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved..
Mangar, S.A., Miller, N.R., Khoo, V.S., Hansen, V., McNair, H., Horwich, A. & Huddart, R.A.
(2008). Evaluating Inter-fractional Changes in Volume and Position during Bladder Radiotherapy and the Effect of Volume Limitation as a Method of Reducing the Internal Margin of the Planning Target Volume. Clin oncol-uk,
Aims: To quantify the inter-fractional variation in bladder volume and position during a course of bladder radiotherapy, and to assess the feasibility of reducing the planning target volume (PTV) internal margin using an empty bladder protocol.Materials and methods: Weekly computed tomography scans were taken immediately after micturition on 15 patients undergoing radical radiotherapy for bladder cancer. Bladder volume and positional variation were compared by co-registration of the serial computed tomography scans with the initial planning scan and a single 'full' scan at the onset of treatment for each patient. A PTV was generated on the initial planning scan using both our departmental standard of 1.5 cm and a reduced 1 cm isotropic internal margin around the target (whole bladder) and the relative proportion of the bladder breaching the PTV using both margins compared.Results: The mean post void residual volume from the planning scan was 112 cm(3) (standard deviation 42 cm(3)). The mean weekly variation in bladder volume relative to the planning volume was 0-12% (standard deviation 20-34%) with no observable trends over time. No statistically significant differences were seen in the proportion of bladder breaching the 1.5 and 1 cm internal margin (P = 0.18). Regression analysis showed that it is possible to ensure complete coverage of the bladder with a 1 cm margin, providing the volume did not exceed over 50% of the initial planning scan volume.Conclusion: Using an empty bladder protocol and where on-line imaging is available it is feasible to reduce the internal margin of the PTV from 1.5 to 1cm, providing the volumes do not exceed > 50% of the planning scan volume. Mangar, S. A. et al. (2008). Clinical Oncology 20, 698-704 (c) 2008 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved..
Bedford, J.L., Hansen, V.N., Mcnair, H.A., Aitken, A.H., Brock, J.E., Warrington, A.P. & Brada, M.
(2008). Treatment of lung cancer using volumetric modulated arc therapy and image guidance: A case study. Acta oncologica,
Background. Volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) is a radiotherapy technique in which the gantry rotates while the beam is on. Gantry speed, multileaf collimator (MLC) leaf position and dose rate vary continuously during the irradiation. For optimum results, this type of treatment should be subject to image guidance. The application of VMAT and image guidance to the treatment of a lung cancer patient is described. Material and methods. In-house software AutoBeam was developed to facilitate treatment planning for VMAT beams. The algorithm consisted of a fluence optimisation using the iterative least-squares technique, a segmentation and then a direct-aperture optimisation. A dose of 50 Gy in 25 fractions was planned, using a single arc with 35 control points at 10 intervals. The resulting plan was transferred to a commercial treatment planning system for final calculation. The plan was verified using a 0.6 cm(3) ionisation chamber and film in a rectangular phantom. The patient was treated supine on a customised lung board and imaged daily with cone-beam CT for the first three days then weekly thereafter. Results. The VMAT plan provided slightly improved coverage of the planning target volume (PTV) and slightly lower volume of lung irradiated to 20 Gy (V-20) than a three-field conformal plan (PTV minimum dose 85.0 Gy vs. 81.8 Gy and lung V-20 31.5% vs. 34.8%). The difference between the measured and planned dose was -1.1% (measured dose lower) and 97.6% of the film passed a gamma test of 3% and 3 mm. The VMAT treatment required 90s for delivery of a single fraction of 2 Gy instead of 180s total treatment time for the conformal plan. Conclusion. VMAT provides a quality dose distribution with a short treatment time as shown in an example of a lung tumour. The technique should allow for more efficient delivery of high dose treatments, such as used for hypofractionated radiotherapy of small volume lung tumours, and the technique may also be used in conjunction with Active Breathing Control, where fewer breath holds will be required..
Mangar, S.A., Mitter, N.A., Norman, A., Hansen, V., Foo, K., McNair, H., Horwich, A. & Huddart, R.A.
(2007). Evaluating the impact of volume limitation as a method of reducing the internal margin of the PTV in bladder radiotherapy. Clin oncol-uk,
McNair, H.A., Panakis, N., Evans, P., Brock, J., Knowles, C., Symonds-Tayler, J.R. & Brada, M.
(2007). Active breathing control (ABC) in radical radiotherapy of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Clin oncol-uk,
Urbano, T.G., Clark, C.H., Hansen, V.N., Adams, E.J., A'Hern, R., Miles, E.A., McNair, H., Bidmead, M., Warrington, A.P., Dearnaley, D.P., et al.
(2007). A phase I study of dose-escalated chemoradiation with accelerated intensity modulated radiotherapy in locally advanced head and neck cancer. Radiother oncol,
Background and purpose: Intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) allows the delivery of higher and more homogeneous radiation dose to head and neck tumours. This study aims to determine the safety of dose-escalated chemo-IMRT for larynx preservation in locally advanced head and neck cancer.Methods: Patients with T2-4, N1-3, MO squannous cell carcinoma of the larynx or hypopharynx were treated with a simultaneous-boost IMRT. Two radiation dose levels (DL) were tested: In DL 1, 63 Gy/28F was delivered to primary tumour and involved nodes and 51.8 Gy/28F to elective nodes. In DL 2, the doses were 67.2 Gy/28F and 56 Gy/28F, respectively, representing a 9% dose escalation for the primary. All patients received 2 cycles of neoadjuvant cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil, and concomitant cisplatin. Acute (NCICTCv.2.0) and late toxicity (RTOG and modified LENTSOM) were collected.Results: Thirty patients were entered, 15 in each dose level. All patients completed the treatment schedule. In DL 1, the incidences of acute G3 toxicities were 27% (pain), 20% (radiation dermatitis), 0% (xerostomia) and 67% required gastrostomy tubes. For DL 2 the corresponding incidences were 40%, 20%, 7%, and 87%. G3 dysphagia and pain persisted longer in DL 2. With regard to mucositis, a prolonged heating time for DL 2 was found, with prevalence of G2 of 58% in week 10. No acute grade 4 toxicity was observed. At 6 months, I patient in DL 2 had G3 late toxicity (dysphagia). No dose limiting toxicity was found. Complete response rates were 80% in DL 1, and 87% in DL 2.Conclusion: Moderately accelerated chemo-IMRT is safe and feasible with good compliance and acceptable acute toxicity. Dose escalation was possible without a significant difference in acute toxicity. Longer follow-up is required to determine the incidence of late radiation toxicities, and tumour control rates. (c) 2007 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved. Radiotherapy and Oncology 85 (2007) 36-41..
McNair, H.A., Mangar, S.A., Coffey, J., Shoulders, B., Hansen, V.N., Norman, A., Staffurth, J., Sohaib, S.A., Warrington, A.P. & Dearnaley, D.P., et al.
(2006). A comparison of CT- and ultrasound-based imaging to localize the prostate for external beam radiotherapy. Int j radiat oncol,
Purpose: This study assesses the accuracy of NOMOS B-mode acquisition and targeting system (BAT) compared with computed tomography (CT) in localizing the prostate.Methods and Materials: Twenty-six patients were CT scanned, and the prostate was localized by 3 observers using the BAT system. The BAT couch shift measurements were compared with the CT localization. Six of the patients had gold markers present in the prostate, and the prostate movement determined by BAT was compared with the movement determined by the gold markers.Results: Using the BAT system, the 3 observers determined the prostate position to be a mean of 1-5 mm over all directions with respect to the CT. The proportion of readings with a difference > 3 mm between the observers was in the range of 25% to 44%. The prostate movement based on gold markers was an average of 3-5 mm different from that measured by BAT. The literature assessing the accuracy and reproducibility on BAT is summarized and compared with our findings.Conclusions: We have found that there are systematic differences between the BAT-defined prostate position compared with that estimated on CT using gold grain marker seeds. (c) 2006 Elsevier Inc..
Doherty, U.M., McNair, H.A., Norman, A.R., Miles, E., Hooper, S., Davies, M., Lincoln, N., Balyckyi, J., Childs, P., Dearnaley, D.P., et al.
(2006). Variability of bladder filling in patients receiving radical radiotherapy to the prostate. Radiother oncol,
Background and purpose: Patients receiving radical radiotherapy to the prostate are requested to maintain a full bladder to displace the dome of the bladder and small bowel from the target volume. This study investigated patients' ability to consistently maintain a full bladder throughout planning and treatment before (Study 1) and after (Study 2) the introduction of a patient information sheet.Patients and methods: Bladder volumes were measured on 41 patients at CT scanning, simulation and once weekly during treatment using a portable ultrasound device, BladderScan (TM) BVI 3000. Patients were asked their assessment of bladder fullness, time since last urination and the volume of fluid drank. A patient information sheet on bladder filling was then introduced and the study repeated on 25 patients (Study 2). The ultrasound bladder volumes measured at CT were compared to the CT scan data.Results: There was a strong correlation between the ultrasound and CT bladder volumes r=0.88 (P < 0.01). There was a significant decrease between the volume at CT (mean 362 ml, SD 229 ml) and treatment (mean 251 ml, SD 171 ml) in Study 1 (P = 0.002). In Study 2 the mean volume at CT was 286 ml (SD 164 ml) compared to a mean of 312 ml (SD 196 ml) during treatment. The measured volume correlated with patient self-assessment (r = 0.47, P < 0.01). The median volume drank by patients in Study 2 was 350 ml (range 50-825 ml) compared to 450 ml (range 75-1500 ml) in Study 1.Conclusions: Our initial results showed patients were unable to maintain a constant bladder volume during planning and treatment. Implementation of written bladder filling instructions was shown to improve bladder volume consistency. (c) 2006 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved..
Harris, E.J., McNair, H.A. & Evans, P.M.
(2006). Feasibility of fully automated detection of fiducial markers implanted into the prostate using electronic portal imaging: A comparison of methods. Int j radiat oncol,
Purpose: To investigate the feasibility of fully automated detection of fiducial markers implanted into the prostate using portal images acquired with an electronic portal imaging device.Methods and Materials: We have made a direct comparison of 4 different methods (2 template matching-based methods, a method incorporating attenuation and constellation analyses and a cross correlation method) that have been published in the literature for the automatic detection of fiducial markers. The cross-correlation technique requires a-priory information from the portal images, therefore the technique is not fully automated for the first treatment fraction. Images of 7 patients implanted with gold fiducial markers (8 mm in length and I mm in diameter) were acquired before treatment (set-up images) and during treatment (movie images) using 1MU and 15MU per image respectively. Images included: 75 anterior (AP) and 69 lateral (LAT) set-up images and 51 AP and 83 LAT movie images. Using the different methods described in the literature, marker positions were automatically identified.Results: The method based upon cross correlation techniques gave the highest percentage detection success rate of 99% (AP) and 83% (LAT) set-up (1MU) images. The methods gave detection success rates of less than 91% (AP) and 42% (LAT) set-up images. The amount of a-priory information used and how it affects the way the techniques are implemented, is discussed.Conclusions: Fully automated marker detection in set-up images for the first treatment fraction is unachievable using these methods and that using cross-correlation is the best technique for automatic detection on subsequent radiotherapy treatment fractions. (c) 2006 Elsevier Inc..
Flampouri, S., McNair, H.A., Donovan, E.M., Evans, P.M., Partridge, M., Verhaegen, F. & Nutting, C.M.
(2005). Initial patient imaging with an optimised radiotherapy beam for portal imaging. Radiother oncol,
Background and purpose: To investigate the feasibility and the advantages of a portal-imaging mode on a medical accelerator, consisting of a thin low-Z bremsstrahlung target and a thin Gd2O2S/film detector, for patient imaging.Patients and methods: The international code of practice for high-energy photon dosimetry was used to calibrate dosimetry instruments for the imaging beam produced by 4.75 MeV electrons hitting a 6 mm thick aluminium target. Images of the head and neck of a humanoid phantom were taken with a mammography film system and the dose in the phantom was measured with TLDs calibrated for this beam. The first head and neck patient images are compared with conventional images (taken with the treatment beam on a film radiotherapy verification detector). Visibility of structures for six patients was evaluated.Results: Images of the head and neck of a humanoid phantom, taken with both imaging systems showed that the contrast increased dramatically for the new system while the dose required to form an image was less than 10(-2) Gy. The patient images taken with the new and the conventional systems showed that air-tissue interfaces were better defined in the new system image. Anatomical structures, visible on both films, are clearer with the new system. Additionally, bony structures, such as vertebrae, were clearly visible only with the new system. The system under evaluation was significantly better for all features in lateral images and most features in anterior images.Conclusions: This pilot study of the new portal imaging system showed the image quality is significantly improved. (C) 2005 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved..
Guerrero Urbano, M.T., Clark, C., Hansen, V., Adams, E., Miles, E., McNair, H., Bidmead, M., Dearnley, D., Harrington, K. & Nutting, C., et al.
(2005). Results of Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy (IMRT) in laryngeal and hypopharyngeal cancer: A dose escalation study. Ejc suppl,
Christian, J.A., Partridge, M., Nioutsikou, E., Cook, G., McNair, H.A., Cronin, B., Courbon, F., Bedford, J.L. & Brada, M.
(2005). The incorporation of SPECT functional lung imaging into inverse radiotherapy planning for non-small cell lung cancer. Radiother oncol,
Background and purpose: Patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) often have inhomogeneous lung perfusion. Radiotherapy planning computed tomography (CT) scans have been accurately co-registered with lung perfusion single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) scans to design radiotherapy treatments which limit dose to healthy 'perfused' lung.Patients and methods: Patients with localised NSCLC had CT and SPECT scans accurately co-registered in the planning system. The SPECT images were used to define a volume of perfused 'functioning' lung (FL). Inverse planning software was used to create 3D-conformal plans, the planning objective being either to minimise the dose to whole lungs (WL) or to minimise the dose to FL.Results: Four plans were created for each of six patients. The mean difference in volume between WL and FL was 1011.7 cm(3) (range 596.2-1581.1 cm(3)). One patient with bilateral upper lobe perfusion deficits had a 16% reduction in FLV20 (the percentage volume of functioning lung receiving >= 20 Gy). The remaining patients had inhomogeneous perfusion deficits such that inverse planning was not able to sufficiently optimise beam angles to avoid functioning lung.Conclusion: SPECT perfusion images can be accurately co-registered with radiotherapy planning CT scans and may be helpful in creating treatment plans for patients with large perfusion deficits. (c) 2005 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved. Radiotherapy and Oncology 77 (2005) 271-277..
O'Sullivan, J.M., Norman, A.R., McNair, H. & Dearnaley, D.P.
(2004). Cranial nerve palsies in metastatic prostate cancer - results of base of skull radiotherapy. Radiother oncol,
We studied the rate of response to palliative external beam radiation therapy (20 Gy/5 or 30 Gy/10 fractions) to the base of skull in 32 prostate cancer patients with cranial nerve dysfunction. Sixteen patients (50%; 95% CI, 34-66%) had a useful response to therapy. The median survival post-therapy was 3 months. (C) 2004 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved..
Adams, E.J., Convery, D.J., Cosgrove, V.P., McNair, H.A., Staffurth, J.N., Vaarkamp, J., Nutting, C.M., Warrington, A.P., Webb, S., Balyckyi, J., et al.
(2004). Clinical implementation of dynamic and step-and-shoot IMRT to treat prostate cancer with high risk of pelvic lymph node involvement. Radiother oncol,
Background and purpose: Two systems have been developed for treating patients with locally advanced prostate cancer using intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT): one using dynamic multi-leaf collimator delivery and the other using step-and-shoot. This paper describes the clinical implementation of these two techniques, and presents results from the first 14 patients treated in a clinical setting (nine dynamic, five step-and-shoot).Patients and methods: Dynamic treatments were planned using Corvus, and step-and-shoot using Helax-TMS; all were delivered using Elekta accelerators. Prior to the first clinical treatments, validation measurements were carried out for each system, including measurements for a complete IMRT treatment. The reproducibility of dynamic delivery and the characteristics of the accelerator for low-monitor-unit (MU) deliveries were also assessed. An extensive quality assurance (QA) program was performed for each of the patients. Additionally, timing measurements were carried out to assess the practicalities of the technique.Results: The planning objectives were met in most cases. Absolute doses for complete IMRT treatments were within 2%, on average, with dose distributions generally showing agreement within 3% or 3 mm. Beam modulation measurements made throughout each patient's treatment indicated that both delivery methods were reproducible. The dynamic plans required an average of 765 MU per beam, with a treatment delivery time of 14 min; corresponding results for step-and-shoot plans were 105 MU and 10 min.Conclusions: Two IMRT techniques for this group of patients have been successfully implemented in the clinic. The more complex dynamic treatments showed no advantages over the step-and-shoot approach. QA results have shown accurate and reproducible delivery for both techniques, giving increased confidence in the techniques and allowing a reduction in the QA program. (C) 2003 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved..
McNair, H.A., Parker, C., Hansen, V.N., Askew, L., Mukherjee, R., Nutting, C., Norman, A.R. & Dearnaley, D.P.
(2004). An evaluation of beam cath((R)) in the verification process for prostate cancer radiotherapy. Clin oncol-uk,
Aims: As the trend towards more conformal treatment continues, the accuracy of treatment delivery becomes more important. Conventionally, treatment set-up for prostate cancer patients is verified in relation to the bony anatomy. However, there can be prostate movement independent of bony anatomy. This study tested the feasibility of using Beam cath(R) to enable online correction of treatment set-up in relation to the prostate position, and to assess inter-fraction and intra-fraction prostate movement.Materials and methods: Beam cath(R) is a urethral catheter containing radio-opaque markers, which can be seen on electronic portal imaging, enabling verification of prostate rather than bony anatomy position. The Beam cath(R) was used for planning and treatment of a boost phase of 10 Gy in 5 fractions, delivered before the conventional conformal plan of 60 Gy in 30 fractions. Patients were scanned by computed tomgography (CT), with and without the catheter, and a radio-opaque marker in the catheter was used as the isocentre of the boost phase to enable accurate and rapid pre-treatment isocentre adjustment. The set-up errors between the Beam Cath(R) and bony images were compared to identify the magnitude of prostate movement, independent of bony anatomy. Post-treatment portal images were taken to assess intra-fraction prostate movement.Results: Of 29 patients approached to take part in the study, IS patients gave informed consent, but only five completed the intended 5 fractions of the boost phase using Beam cath(R) . Pre- and post-treatment portal images were obtained for a total of 29 fractions in six patients. Inter-fraction prostate movement, independent of bony anatomy, was identified. The mean movements were 0.2 mm (standard deviation [SD] 1.2 mm), 2.9 mm (SD 3.1 mm) and 0.7 mm (SD 2.3 mm) in the right-left (RL), cranio-caudal (CC) and anterior-posterior (AP) direction, respectively. The mean intra-fraction movement was 0.2 mm (SD 1.2 mm), 2.9 mm (SD 3.1 mm) and 0.7 mm (SD 2.3 mm) in the RL, CC and AP direction, respectively.Conclusion: Although independent prostate movement was identified, the use of Beam cath(R) was poorly tolerated. Alternative methods of identifying and correcting for prostate movement should be investigated. (C) 2004 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved..
Lee, Y.K., Bollet, M., Charles-Edwards, G., Flower, M.A., Leach, M.O., McNair, H., Moore, E., Rowbottom, C. & Webb, S.
(2003). Radiotherapy treatment planning of prostate cancer using magnetic resonance imaging alone. Radiother oncol,
Purpose: Accurate anatomical delineation of the gross tumour volume (GTV) is crucial for effective radiotherapy (RT) treatment of prostate cancers. Although reference to pelvic magnetic resonance (MR) for improved delineation of the prostate is a regular practice in some clinics, MR has not replaced CT due to its geometrical distortions and lack of electron-density information. The possibility and practicality of using MR only for RT treatment planning were studied.Materials and methods: The addition of electron-density information to MR images for conformal radiotherapy (CRT) planning of the prostate was quantified by comparing dose distributions created on the homogeneous density- and bulk-density assigned images to original CT for four patients. To quantify the MR geometrical distortions measurements of a phantom imaged in CT (Siemens Somatom Plus 4) and FLASH 3D T1-weighted MR (1.5 T whole body Siemens Magnetom Vision) were compared. Dose statistics from CRT treatment plans made on CT and MR for five patient data were compared to determine if MR-only treatment plans can be made.Results: The differences between dose-plans on bulk-density assigned images when compared to CT were less than 2% when water and bone values were assigned. Dose differences greater than 2% were observed when images of homogeneous-density assignment were compared to the CT. Phantom measurements showed that the distortions in the FLASH 3D T1-weighted MR averaged 2 mm in the volume of interest for prostate RT planning. For the CT and MR prostate planning study, doses delivered to the planning target volume (PTV) in CT and MR were always inside a 93-107% dose range normalised to the isocentre. Also, the doses to the organs-at-risk in the MR images were similar to the doses delivered to the volumes in the registered CT image when the organ volumes between the two images were similar.Conclusions: Negligible differences were observed in dose distribution between CRT plans using bone + water CT number bulk-assigned image and original CT. Also, the MR distortions were reduced to negligible amounts using large bandwidth MR sequence for prostate CRT planning. MR treatment planning was demonstrated using a large bandwidth sequence and bulk-assigned images. The development of higher quality, low distortion MR sequence will allow regular practice of this technique. (C) 2003 Elsevier Science Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved..
McNair, H.A., Adams, E.J., Clark, C.H., Miles, E.A. & Nutting, C.M.
(2003). Implementation of IMRT in the radiotherapy department. The british journal of radiology,
McNair, H.A., Adams, E.J., Clark, C.H., Miles, E.A. & Nutting, C.M.
(2003). Implementation of IMRT in the radiotherapy department 10 1259/bjr/19737738. British journal of radiology,
Bollet, M.A., McNair, H.A., Hansen, V.N., Norman, A., O'Doherty, U., Taylor, H., Rose, M., Mukherjee, R. & Huddart, R.
(2003). Can digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRRS) replace simulation films in prostate cancer conformal radiotherapy?. Int j radiat oncol,
Purpose: To evaluate the precision of using digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRRs) of either 3 mm or 6 mm slice separation vs. using simulator images for the setup verification of patients receiving CT planned conformal radiotherapy to the prostate. To calculate the transfer error between CT and simulator.Methods and Materials: Twenty patients were CT scanned (3 mm slice spacing/width). DRRs were generated for both 3 mm (DRR 3) and 6 mm (DRR 6) separations. DRRs and a simulator image of an anterior and a lateral field were used as reference images. Five observers matched each of the reference images to treatment images using the Theraview "Target check" facility. It was assumed that poorer images would lead to a loss of precision of field placement estimations (FPE) between observers. The study was designed to detect a difference greater than 1.5 mm(2) in the precision of image placement. The transfer error was the mean difference in the setup error derived from the DRRs and the simulation films.Results: The precision of evaluations for simulator films and 3 mm DRRs were similar. There was a trend for the DRR 6 mm to achieve less precise results which was greatest for craniocaudal examinations (variance: simulator 1.5 mm(2), DRR6 2.8 mm(2), p = 0.17), but this did not reach statistical significance. A range of transfer errors was identified, with standard deviations ranging from 1.7 to 4.2 mm. There was evidence of a significant systematic bias in anterior craniocaudal (1.3-1.9 mm, p < 0.004) and anterior posterior (-1.9 mm, p = 0.027).Conclusion: The precision of setup evaluations using DRRs is similar to that achieved by using simulator fields when planning conformal prostate radiotherapy. The use of DRRs could reduce systematic errors introduced in the planning process. (C) 2003 Elsevier Inc..
Nutting, C.M., Khoo, V.S., Walker, V., McNair, H., Beardmore, C., Norman, A. & Dearnaley, D.P.
(2000). A randomised study of the use of a customised immobilisation system in the treatment of prostate cancer with conformal radiotherapy. Radiother oncol,
Purpose: To evaluate the impact of a customised immobilisation system on field placement accuracy, simulation and treatment delivery rime, radiographer convenience and patient acceptability.Patients and methods: Thirty men receiving radical radiotherapy for prostate cancer were randomised using a cross over trial design to have radiotherapy planning and treatment given either in a conventional treatment position (CTP) or using an immobilisation system (LMS). The randomisation was to have either the CTP or IMS for the initial 3 weeks of radiotherapy after which patients were replanned and changed to the alternative treatment set-up. Treatment accuracy was measured using an electronic portal imaging device. Radiographers and patients completed weekly questionnaires.Results: Median simulation time was 22.5 min (range 20-30 min) in the CTP and 25 min (range 15-40 min) for the IMS (P < 0.001). Median treatment time was 9 min for CTP (range 8-10 min), and 10 min (range 8.5-13.5 min) for IMS (P < 0.001). Median isocentre displacement for anterior fields was 1.7 mm from the simulated isocentre for the CTP compared to 2.0 mm for IMS (P = 0.07). For left lateral fields values were 1.8 and 1.8 mm (P = 0.98), and for right lateral fields 2.1 and 1.7 mm (P = 0.06), respectively. No clinically significant reduction in either systematic or random field placement errors was demonstrated. Radiographers reported that patients found the IMS more comfortable than CTP (P < 0.001), but when using the IMS, they noticed greater difficulty in patient positioning (P < 0.001), and alignment to skin tattoos (P < 0.001).Conclusions: Although IMS may have been more comfortable, treatment accuracy was not improved compared to the CTP in our department. In addition, treatment look longer and patient set-up was more difficult. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved..
Jalali, R., Brada, M., Perks, J.R., Warrington, A.P., Traish, D., Burchell, L., McNair, H., Thomas, D.G., Robinson, S. & Johnston, D.G., et al.
(2000). Stereotactic conformal radiotherapy for pituitary adenomas: technique and preliminary experience. Clin endocrinol,
OBJECTIVE Stereotactic conformal radiotherapy (SCRT) is a high precision technique of fractionated radiotherapy which ensures accurate delivery of radiation with reduction in the volume of normal tissue irradiated as compared to conventional external beam radiotherapy. We describe the technique and preliminary experience of SCRT in patients with residual and recurrent pituitary adenomas.PATIENTS AND METHODS Between February 1995 and March 1999, 22 patients (mean age: 45.3, range: 20-67 years) with residual or recurrent pituitary adenomas (13 nonfunctioning, nine secretory) were treated with SCRT. All were immobilized in a relocatable Gill-Thomas-Cosman (GTC) frame and tumour was localized on a postcontrast planning computerized tomography (CT) and MRI scan. The gross tumour volume (GTV) and the critical structures were outlined on contiguous 2-3 mm separated slices. A margin of 5 mm (12 patients) to 10 mm (10 patients) was grown around GTV in three-dimensions (3-D) to generate the planning target volume (PTV). The treatment was delivered by three (five patients) and four (17 patients) maximally separated conformal fixed fields with each field conformed to the shape of the tumour using customized lead alloy blocks (19 patients) or multileaf collimator (three patients). The patients were treated on a 6-MV linear accelerator to a dose of 45 Gy in 25 fractions (18 patients) and 50 Gy in 30 fractions (four patients).RESULTS The technique of SCRT has become a part of the routine work of the radiotherapy department. The treatment was well tolerated with minimal acute toxicity. One patient developed transient quadrantanopia 2 weeks after treatment with full recovery after a short course of corticosteroids. One patient had a transient visual deterioration 7 months after treatment due to cystic degeneration of the tumour which fully recovered following surgical decompression. Nine of the 15 patients presenting with visual impairment had improvement after treatment and the visual status remained stable in all others. One patient with acromegaly and one with a prolactinoma achieved normalization of elevated hormonal abnormality four and 10 months after SCRT, respectively. The remaining seven patients with a secretory adenoma had declining hormone levels at last follow-up. Newly initiated hormone replacement therapy was required in five patients. At a median follow-up of 9 months (range 1-44 months), the 1 and 2 year actuarial progression free and overall survival were 100%.CONCLUSION Stereotactic conformal radiotherapy is a high precision technique suitable for the treatment of pituitary adenomas requiring radiotherapy. Preliminary results suggest effective tumour control and low toxicity within the range expected for conventional external beam radiotherapy. While the technique is of potential benefit in reducing the volume of normal brain irradiated, the advantages in terms of sustained tumour control and reduced toxicity over conventional radiotherapy need to be demonstrated in long-term prospective studies..
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