Burns, M.C., Howes, J.E., Sun, Q., Little, A.J., Camper, D.V., Abbott, J.R., Phan, J., Lee, T., Waterson, A.G., Rossanese, O.W., et al.
(2018). High-throughput screening identifies small molecules that bind to the RAS:SOS:RAS complex and perturb RAS signaling. Anal biochem,
K-RAS is mutated in approximately 30% of human cancers, resulting in increased RAS signaling and tumor growth. Thus, RAS is a highly validated therapeutic target, especially in tumors of the pancreas, lung and colon. Although directly targeting RAS has proven to be challenging, it may be possible to target other proteins involved in RAS signaling, such as the guanine nucleotide exchange factor Son of Sevenless (SOS). We have previously reported on the discovery of small molecules that bind to SOS1, activate SOS-mediated nucleotide exchange on RAS, and paradoxically inhibit ERK phosphorylation (Burns et al., PNAS, 2014). Here, we describe the discovery of additional, structurally diverse small molecules that also bind to SOS1 in the same pocket and elicit similar biological effects. We tested >160,000 compounds in a fluorescence-based assay to assess their effects on SOS-mediated nucleotide exchange. X-Ray structures revealed that these small molecules bind to the CDC25 domain of SOS1. Compounds that elicited high levels of nucleotide exchange activity in vitro increased RAS-GTP levels in cells, and inhibited phospho ERK levels at higher treatment concentrations. The identification of structurally diverse SOS1 binding ligands may assist in the discovery of new molecules designed to target RAS-driven tumors..
Howes, J.E., Akan, D.T., Burns, M.C., Rossanese, O.W., Waterson, A.G. & Fesik, S.W.
(2018). Small Molecule-Mediated Activation of RAS Elicits Biphasic Modulation of Phospho-ERK Levels that Are Regulated through Negative Feedback on SOS1. Mol cancer ther,
Oncogenic mutation of RAS results in aberrant cellular signaling and is responsible for more than 30% of all human tumors. Therefore, pharmacologic modulation of RAS has attracted great interest as a therapeutic strategy. Our laboratory has recently discovered small molecules that activate Son of Sevenless (SOS)-catalyzed nucleotide exchange on RAS and inhibit downstream signaling. Here, we describe how pharmacologically targeting SOS1 induced biphasic modulation of RAS-GTP and ERK phosphorylation levels, which we observed in a variety of cell lines expressing different RAS-mutant isoforms. We show that compound treatment caused an increase in phosphorylation at ERK consensus motifs on SOS1 that was not observed with the expression of a non-phosphorylatable S1178A SOS1 mutant or after pretreatment with an ERK inhibitor. Phosphorylation at S1178 on SOS1 is known to inhibit the association between SOS1 and GRB2 and disrupt SOS1 membrane localization. Consistent with this, we show that wild-type SOS1 and GRB2 dissociated in a time-dependent fashion in response to compound treatment, and conversely, this interaction was enhanced with the expression of an S1178A SOS1 mutant. Furthermore, in cells expressing either S1178A SOS1 or a constitutively membrane-bound CAAX box tagged SOS1 mutant, we observed elevated RAS-GTP levels over time in response to compound, as compared with the biphasic changes in RAS-GTP exhibited in cells expressing wild-type SOS1. These results suggest that small molecule targeting of SOS1 can elicit a biphasic modulation of RAS-GTP and phospho-ERK levels through negative feedback on SOS1 that regulates the interaction between SOS1 and GRB2. Mol Cancer Ther; 17(5); 1051-60. ©2018 AACR..
Hodges, T.R., Abbott, J.R., Little, A.J., Sarkar, D., Salovich, J.M., Howes, J.E., Akan, D.T., Sai, J., Arnold, A.L., Browning, C., et al.
(2018). Discovery and Structure-Based Optimization of Benzimidazole-Derived Activators of SOS1-Mediated Nucleotide Exchange on RAS. J med chem,
Son of sevenless homologue 1 (SOS1) is a guanine nucleotide exchange factor that catalyzes the exchange of GDP for GTP on RAS. In its active form, GTP-bound RAS is responsible for numerous critical cellular processes. Aberrant RAS activity is involved in ∼30% of all human cancers; hence, SOS1 is an attractive therapeutic target for its role in modulating RAS activation. Here, we describe a new series of benzimidazole-derived SOS1 agonists. Using structure-guided design, we discovered small molecules that increase nucleotide exchange on RAS in vitro at submicromolar concentrations, bind to SOS1 with low double-digit nanomolar affinity, rapidly enhance cellular RAS-GTP levels, and invoke biphasic signaling changes in phosphorylation of ERK 1/2. These compounds represent the most potent series of SOS1 agonists reported to date..
Abbott, J.R., Hodges, T.R., Daniels, R.N., Patel, P.A., Kennedy, J.P., Howes, J.E., Akan, D.T., Burns, M.C., Sai, J., Sobolik, T., et al.
(2018). Discovery of Aminopiperidine Indoles That Activate the Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factor SOS1 and Modulate RAS Signaling. J med chem,
Deregulated RAS activity, often the result of mutation, is implicated in approximately 30% of all human cancers. Despite this statistic, no clinically successful treatment for RAS-driven tumors has yet been developed. One approach for modulating RAS activity is to target and affect the activity of proteins that interact with RAS, such as the guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) son of sevenless homologue 1 (SOS1). Here, we report on structure-activity relationships (SAR) in an indole series of compounds. Using structure-based design, we systematically explored substitution patterns on the indole nucleus, the pendant amino acid moiety, and the linker unit that connects these two fragments. Best-in-class compounds activate the nucleotide exchange process at submicromolar concentrations in vitro, increase levels of active RAS-GTP in HeLa cells, and elicit signaling changes in the mitogen-activated protein kinase-extracellular regulated kinase (MAPK-ERK) pathway, resulting in a decrease in pERK1/2T202/Y204 protein levels at higher compound concentrations..
Wang, F., Jeon, K.O., Salovich, J.M., Macdonald, J.D., Alvarado, J., Gogliotti, R.D., Phan, J., Olejniczak, E.T., Sun, Q., Wang, S., et al.
(2018). Discovery of Potent 2-Aryl-6,7-dihydro-5 H-pyrrolo[1,2- a]imidazoles as WDR5-WIN-Site Inhibitors Using Fragment-Based Methods and Structure-Based Design. J med chem,
WDR5 is a chromatin-regulatory scaffold protein overexpressed in various cancers and a potential epigenetic drug target for the treatment of mixed-lineage leukemia. Here, we describe the discovery of potent and selective WDR5-WIN-site inhibitors using fragment-based methods and structure-based design. NMR-based screening of a large fragment library identified several chemically distinct hit series that bind to the WIN site within WDR5. Members of a 6,7-dihydro-5 H-pyrrolo[1,2- a]imidazole fragment class were expanded using a structure-based design approach to arrive at lead compounds with dissociation constants <10 nM and micromolar cellular activity against an AML-leukemia cell line. These compounds represent starting points for the discovery of clinically useful WDR5 inhibitors for the treatment of cancer..
Abbott, J.R., Patel, P.A., Howes, J.E., Akan, D.T., Kennedy, J.P., Burns, M.C., Browning, C.F., Sun, Q., Rossanese, O.W., Phan, J., et al.
(2018). Discovery of Quinazolines That Activate SOS1-Mediated Nucleotide Exchange on RAS. Acs med chem lett,
Proteins in the RAS family are important regulators of cellular signaling and, when mutated, can drive cancer pathogenesis. Despite considerable effort over the last 30 years, RAS proteins have proven to be recalcitrant therapeutic targets. One approach for modulating RAS signaling is to target proteins that interact with RAS, such as the guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) son of sevenless homologue 1 (SOS1). Here, we report hit-to-lead studies on quinazoline-containing compounds that bind to SOS1 and activate nucleotide exchange on RAS. Using structure-based design, we refined the substituents attached to the quinazoline nucleus and built in additional interactions not present in the initial HTS hit. Optimized compounds activate nucleotide exchange at single-digit micromolar concentrations in vitro. In HeLa cells, these quinazolines increase the levels of RAS-GTP and cause signaling changes in the mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular regulated kinase (MAPK/ERK) pathway..
Shaw, S., Bian, Z., Zhao, B., Tarr, J.C., Veerasamy, N., Jeon, K.O., Belmar, J., Arnold, A.L., Fogarty, S.A., Perry, E., et al.
(2018). Optimization of Potent and Selective Tricyclic Indole Diazepinone Myeloid Cell Leukemia-1 Inhibitors Using Structure-Based Design. J med chem,
Myeloid cell leukemia 1 (Mcl-1), an antiapoptotic member of the Bcl-2 family of proteins, has emerged as an attractive target for cancer therapy. Mcl-1 upregulation is often found in many human cancers and is associated with high tumor grade, poor survival, and resistance to chemotherapy. Here, we describe a series of potent and selective tricyclic indole diazepinone Mcl-1 inhibitors that were discovered and further optimized using structure-based design. These compounds exhibit picomolar binding affinity and mechanism-based cellular efficacy, including growth inhibition and caspase induction in Mcl-1-sensitive cells. Thus, they represent useful compounds to study the implication of Mcl-1 inhibition in cancer and serve as potentially useful starting points toward the discovery of anti-Mcl-1 therapeutics..
Lee, T., Bian, Z., Zhao, B., Hogdal, L.J., Sensintaffar, J.L., Goodwin, C.M., Belmar, J., Shaw, S., Tarr, J.C., Veerasamy, N., et al.
(2017). Discovery and biological characterization of potent myeloid cell leukemia-1 inhibitors. Febs lett,
Myeloid cell leukemia 1 (Mcl-1) is an antiapoptotic member of the Bcl-2 family of proteins that when overexpressed is associated with high tumor grade, poor survival, and resistance to chemotherapy. Mcl-1 is amplified in many human cancers, and knockdown of Mcl-1 using RNAi can lead to apoptosis. Thus, Mcl-1 is a promising cancer target. Here, we describe the discovery of picomolar Mcl-1 inhibitors that cause caspase activation, mitochondrial depolarization, and selective growth inhibition. These compounds represent valuable tools to study the role of Mcl-1 in cancer and serve as useful starting points for the discovery of clinically useful Mcl-1 inhibitors. PDB ID CODES: Comp. 2: 5IEZ; Comp. 5: 5IF4..
Hatch, S.B., Yapp, C., Montenegro, R.C., Savitsky, P., Gamble, V., Tumber, A., Ruda, G.F., Bavetsias, V., Fedorov, O., Atrash, B., et al.
(2017). Assessing histone demethylase inhibitors in cells: lessons learned. Epigenetics chromatin,
BACKGROUND: Histone lysine demethylases (KDMs) are of interest as drug targets due to their regulatory roles in chromatin organization and their tight associations with diseases including cancer and mental disorders. The first KDM inhibitors for KDM1 have entered clinical trials, and efforts are ongoing to develop potent, selective and cell-active 'probe' molecules for this target class. Robust cellular assays to assess the specific engagement of KDM inhibitors in cells as well as their cellular selectivity are a prerequisite for the development of high-quality inhibitors. Here we describe the use of a high-content cellular immunofluorescence assay as a method for demonstrating target engagement in cells. RESULTS: A panel of assays for the Jumonji C subfamily of KDMs was developed to encompass all major branches of the JmjC phylogenetic tree. These assays compare compound activity against wild-type KDM proteins to a catalytically inactive version of the KDM, in which residues involved in the active-site iron coordination are mutated to inactivate the enzyme activity. These mutants are critical for assessing the specific effect of KDM inhibitors and for revealing indirect effects on histone methylation status. The reported assays make use of ectopically expressed demethylases, and we demonstrate their use to profile several recently identified classes of KDM inhibitors and their structurally matched inactive controls. The generated data correlate well with assay results assessing endogenous KDM inhibition and confirm the selectivity observed in biochemical assays with isolated enzymes. We find that both cellular permeability and competition with 2-oxoglutarate affect the translation of biochemical activity to cellular inhibition. CONCLUSIONS: High-content-based immunofluorescence assays have been established for eight KDM members of the 2-oxoglutarate-dependent oxygenases covering all major branches of the JmjC-KDM phylogenetic tree. The usage of both full-length, wild-type and catalytically inactive mutant ectopically expressed protein, as well as structure-matched inactive control compounds, allowed for detection of nonspecific effects causing changes in histone methylation as a result of compound toxicity. The developed assays offer a histone lysine demethylase family-wide tool for assessing KDM inhibitors for cell activity and on-target efficacy. In addition, the presented data may inform further studies to assess the cell-based activity of histone lysine methylation inhibitors..
Pelz, N.F., Bian, Z., Zhao, B., Shaw, S., Tarr, J.C., Belmar, J., Gregg, C., Camper, D.V., Goodwin, C.M., Arnold, A.L., et al.
(2016). Discovery of 2-Indole-acylsulfonamide Myeloid Cell Leukemia 1 (Mcl-1) Inhibitors Using Fragment-Based Methods. J med chem,
Myeloid cell leukemia-1 (Mcl-1) is a member of the Bcl-2 family of proteins responsible for the regulation of programmed cell death. Amplification of Mcl-1 is a common genetic aberration in human cancer whose overexpression contributes to the evasion of apoptosis and is one of the major resistance mechanisms for many chemotherapies. Mcl-1 mediates its effects primarily through interactions with pro-apoptotic BH3 containing proteins that achieve high affinity for the target by utilizing four hydrophobic pockets in its binding groove. Here we describe the discovery of Mcl-1 inhibitors using fragment-based methods and structure-based design. These novel inhibitors exhibit low nanomolar binding affinities to Mcl-1 and >500-fold selectivity over Bcl-xL. X-ray structures of lead Mcl-1 inhibitors when complexed to Mcl-1 provided detailed information on how these small-molecules bind to the target and were used extensively to guide compound optimization. .
Kanu, N., Cerone, M.A., Goh, G., Zalmas, L.-., Bartkova, J., Dietzen, M., McGranahan, N., Rogers, R., Law, E.K., Gromova, I., et al.
(2016). DNA replication stress mediates APOBEC3 family mutagenesis in breast cancer. Genome biol,
BACKGROUND: The APOBEC3 family of cytidine deaminases mutate the cancer genome in a range of cancer types. Although many studies have documented the downstream effects of APOBEC3 activity through next-generation sequencing, less is known about their upstream regulation. In this study, we sought to identify a molecular basis for APOBEC3 expression and activation. RESULTS: HER2 amplification and PTEN loss promote DNA replication stress and APOBEC3B activity in vitro and correlate with APOBEC3 mutagenesis in vivo. HER2-enriched breast carcinomas display evidence of elevated levels of replication stress-associated DNA damage in vivo. Chemical and cytotoxic induction of replication stress, through aphidicolin, gemcitabine, camptothecin or hydroxyurea exposure, activates transcription of APOBEC3B via an ATR/Chk1-dependent pathway in vitro. APOBEC3B activation can be attenuated through repression of oncogenic signalling, small molecule inhibition of receptor tyrosine kinase signalling and alleviation of replication stress through nucleoside supplementation. CONCLUSION: These data link oncogene, loss of tumour suppressor gene and drug-induced replication stress with APOBEC3B activity, providing new insights into how cytidine deaminase-induced mutagenesis might be activated in tumourigenesis and limited therapeutically..
Patrone, J.D., Pelz, N.F., Bates, B.S., Souza-Fagundes, E.M., Vangamudi, B., Camper, D.V., Kuznetsov, A.G., Browning, C.F., Feldkamp, M.D., Frank, A.O., et al.
(2016). Identification and Optimization of Anthranilic Acid Based Inhibitors of Replication Protein A. Chemmedchem,
Replication protein A (RPA) is an essential single-stranded DNA (ssDNA)-binding protein that initiates the DNA damage response pathway through protein-protein interactions (PPIs) mediated by its 70N domain. The identification and use of chemical probes that can specifically disrupt these interactions is important for validating RPA as a cancer target. A high-throughput screen (HTS) to identify new chemical entities was conducted, and 90 hit compounds were identified. From these initial hits, an anthranilic acid based series was optimized by using a structure-guided iterative medicinal chemistry approach to yield a cell-penetrant compound that binds to RPA70N with an affinity of 812 nm. This compound, 2-(3- (N-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)sulfamoyl)-4-methylbenzamido)benzoic acid (20 c), is capable of inhibiting PPIs mediated by this domain. .
Waterson, A.G., Kennedy, J.P., Patrone, J.D., Pelz, N.F., Feldkamp, M.D., Frank, A.O., Vangamudi, B., Souza-Fagundes, E.M., Rossanese, O.W., Chazin, W.J., et al.
(2015). Diphenylpyrazoles as replication protein a inhibitors. Acs med chem lett,
Replication Protein A is the primary eukaryotic ssDNA binding protein that has a central role in initiating the cellular response to DNA damage. RPA recruits multiple proteins to sites of DNA damage via the N-terminal domain of the 70 kDa subunit (RPA70N). Here we describe the optimization of a diphenylpyrazole carboxylic acid series of inhibitors of these RPA-protein interactions. We evaluated substituents on the aromatic rings as well as the type and geometry of the linkers used to combine fragments, ultimately leading to submicromolar inhibitors of RPA70N protein-protein interactions. .
Goodwin, C.M., Rossanese, O.W., Olejniczak, E.T. & Fesik, S.W.
(2015). Myeloid cell leukemia-1 is an important apoptotic survival factor in triple-negative breast cancer. Cell death differ,
Breast cancer is the second-most frequently diagnosed malignancy in US women. The triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) subtype, which lacks expression of the estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor and human epidermal growth factor receptor-2, afflicts 15% of patients and is refractory to current targeted therapies. Like many cancers, TNBC cells often deregulate programmed cell death by upregulating anti-apoptotic proteins of the B-cell CLL/lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) family. One family member, myeloid cell leukemia-1 (Mcl-1), is commonly amplified in TNBC and correlates with a poor clinical prognosis. Here we show the effect of silencing Mcl-1 and Bcl-2-like protein 1 isoform 1 (Bcl-xL) expression on viability in a panel of seventeen TNBC cell lines. Cell death was observed in a subset upon Mcl-1 knockdown. In contrast, Bcl-xL knockdown only modestly reduced viability, indicating that Mcl-1 is a more important survival factor. However, dual silencing of both Mcl-1 and Bcl-xL reduced viability in most cell lines tested. These proliferation results were recapitulated by BH3 profiling experiments. Treatment with a Bcl-xL and Bcl-2 peptide had only a moderate effect on any of the TNBC cell lines, however, co-dosing an Mcl-1-selective peptide with a peptide that inhibits Bcl-xL and Bcl-2 was effective in each line tested. Similarly, the selective Bcl-xL inhibitor WEHI-539 was only weakly cytotoxic across the panel, but sensitization by Mcl-1 knockdown markedly improved its EC50. ABT-199, which selectively inhibits Bcl-2, did not synergize with Mcl-1 knockdown, indicating the relatively low importance of Bcl-2 in these lines. Mcl-1 sensitivity is not predicted by mRNA or protein levels of a single Bcl-2 family member, except for only a weak correlation for Bak and Bax protein expression. However, a more comprehensive index composed of Mcl-1, Bcl-xL, Bim, Bak and Noxa protein or mRNA expression correlates well with Mcl-1 sensitivity in TNBC and can also predict Mcl-1 dependency in non-small cell lung cancer cell lines. .
Burke, J.P., Bian, Z., Shaw, S., Zhao, B., Goodwin, C.M., Belmar, J., Browning, C.F., Vigil, D., Friberg, A., Camper, D.V., et al.
(2015). Discovery of tricyclic indoles that potently inhibit Mcl-1 using fragment-based methods and structure-based design. J med chem,
Myeloid cell leukemia-1 (Mcl-1) is an antiapoptotic member of the Bcl-2 family of proteins that is overexpressed and amplified in many cancers. Overexpression of Mcl-1 allows cancer cells to evade apoptosis and contributes to the resistance of cancer cells to be effectively treated with various chemotherapies. From an NMR-based screen of a large fragment library, several distinct chemical scaffolds that bind to Mcl-1 were discovered. Here, we describe the discovery of potent tricyclic 2-indole carboxylic acid inhibitors that exhibit single digit nanomolar binding affinity to Mcl-1 and greater than 1700-fold selectivity over Bcl-xL and greater than 100-fold selectivity over Bcl-2. X-ray structures of these compounds when complexed to Mcl-1 provide detailed information on how these small-molecules bind to the target, which was used to guide compound optimization. .
Bhave, M., Papanikou, E., Iyer, P., Pandya, K., Jain, B.K., Ganguly, A., Sharma, C., Pawar, K., Austin, J., Day, K.J., et al.
(2014). Golgi enlargement in Arf-depleted yeast cells is due to altered dynamics of cisternal maturation. J cell sci,
Regulation of the size and abundance of membrane compartments is a fundamental cellular activity. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, disruption of the ADP-ribosylation factor 1 (ARF1) gene yields larger and fewer Golgi cisternae by partially depleting the Arf GTPase. We observed a similar phenotype with a thermosensitive mutation in Nmt1, which myristoylates and activates Arf. Therefore, partial depletion of Arf is a convenient tool for dissecting mechanisms that regulate Golgi structure. We found that in arf1Δ cells, late Golgi structure is particularly abnormal, with the number of late Golgi cisternae being severely reduced. This effect can be explained by selective changes in cisternal maturation kinetics. The arf1Δ mutation causes early Golgi cisternae to mature more slowly and less frequently, but does not alter the maturation of late Golgi cisternae. These changes quantitatively explain why late Golgi cisternae are fewer in number and correspondingly larger. With a stacked Golgi, similar changes in maturation kinetics could be used by the cell to modulate the number of cisternae per stack. Thus, the rates of processes that transform a maturing compartment can determine compartmental size and copy number. .
Burns, M.C., Sun, Q., Daniels, R.N., Camper, D., Kennedy, J.P., Phan, J., Olejniczak, E.T., Lee, T., Waterson, A.G., Rossanese, O.W., et al.
(2014). Approach for targeting Ras with small molecules that activate SOS-mediated nucleotide exchange. Proc natl acad sci u s a,
Aberrant activation of the small GTPase Ras by oncogenic mutation or constitutively active upstream receptor tyrosine kinases results in the deregulation of cellular signals governing growth and survival in ∼30% of all human cancers. However, the discovery of potent inhibitors of Ras has been difficult to achieve. Here, we report the identification of small molecules that bind to a unique pocket on the Ras:Son of Sevenless (SOS):Ras complex, increase the rate of SOS-catalyzed nucleotide exchange in vitro, and modulate Ras signaling pathways in cells. X-ray crystallography of Ras:SOS:Ras in complex with these molecules reveals that the compounds bind in a hydrophobic pocket in the CDC25 domain of SOS adjacent to the Switch II region of Ras. The structure-activity relationships exhibited by these compounds can be rationalized on the basis of multiple X-ray cocrystal structures. Mutational analyses confirmed the functional relevance of this binding site and showed it to be essential for compound activity. These molecules increase Ras-GTP levels and disrupt MAPK and PI3K signaling in cells at low micromolar concentrations. These small molecules represent tools to study the acute activation of Ras and highlight a pocket on SOS that may be exploited to modulate Ras signaling. .
Frank, A.O., Vangamudi, B., Feldkamp, M.D., Souza-Fagundes, E.M., Luzwick, J.W., Cortez, D., Olejniczak, E.T., Waterson, A.G., Rossanese, O.W., Chazin, W.J., et al.
(2014). Discovery of a potent stapled helix peptide that binds to the 70N domain of replication protein A. J med chem,
Stapled helix peptides can serve as useful tools for inhibiting protein-protein interactions but can be difficult to optimize for affinity. Here we describe the discovery and optimization of a stapled helix peptide that binds to the N-terminal domain of the 70 kDa subunit of replication protein A (RPA70N). In addition to applying traditional optimization strategies, we employed a novel approach for efficiently designing peptides containing unnatural amino acids. We discovered hot spots in the target protein using a fragment-based screen, identified the amino acid that binds to the hot spot, and selected an unnatural amino acid to incorporate, based on the structure-activity relationships of small molecules that bind to this site. The resulting stapled helix peptide potently and selectively binds to RPA70N, does not disrupt ssDNA binding, and penetrates cells. This peptide may serve as a probe to explore the therapeutic potential of RPA70N inhibition in cancer. .
Patrone, J.D., Kennedy, J.P., Frank, A.O., Feldkamp, M.D., Vangamudi, B., Pelz, N.F., Rossanese, O.W., Waterson, A.G., Chazin, W.J. & Fesik, S.W., et al.
(2013). Discovery of Protein-Protein Interaction Inhibitors of Replication Protein A. Acs med chem lett,
Replication Protein A (RPA) is a ssDNA binding protein that is essential for DNA replication and repair. The initiation of the DNA damage response by RPA is mediated by protein-protein interactions involving the N-terminal domain of the 70 kDa subunit with partner proteins. Inhibition of these interactions increases sensitivity towards DNA damage and replication stress and may therefore be a potential strategy for cancer drug discovery. Towards this end, we have discovered two lead series of compounds, derived from hits obtained from a fragment-based screen, that bind to RPA70N with low micromolar affinity and inhibit the binding of an ATRIP-derived peptide to RPA. These compounds may offer a promising starting point for the discovery of clinically useful RPA inhibitors..
Rheault, T.R., Stellwagen, J.C., Adjabeng, G.M., Hornberger, K.R., Petrov, K.G., Waterson, A.G., Dickerson, S.H., Mook, R.A., Laquerre, S.G., King, A.J., et al.
(2013). Discovery of Dabrafenib: A Selective Inhibitor of Raf Kinases with Antitumor Activity against B-Raf-Driven Tumors. Acs med chem lett,
Hyperactive signaling of the MAP kinase pathway resulting from the constitutively active B-Raf(V600E) mutated enzyme has been observed in a number of human tumors, including melanomas. Herein we report the discovery and biological evaluation of GSK2118436, a selective inhibitor of Raf kinases with potent in vitro activity in oncogenic B-Raf-driven melanoma and colorectal carcinoma cells and robust in vivo antitumor and pharmacodynamic activity in mouse models of B-Raf(V600E) human melanoma. GSK2118436 was identified as a development candidate, and early clinical results have shown significant activity in patients with B-Raf mutant melanoma. .
Frank, A.O., Feldkamp, M.D., Kennedy, J.P., Waterson, A.G., Pelz, N.F., Patrone, J.D., Vangamudi, B., Camper, D.V., Rossanese, O.W., Chazin, W.J., et al.
(2013). Discovery of a potent inhibitor of replication protein a protein-protein interactions using a fragment-linking approach. J med chem,
Replication protein A (RPA), the major eukaryotic single-stranded DNA (ssDNA)-binding protein, is involved in nearly all cellular DNA transactions. The RPA N-terminal domain (RPA70N) is a recruitment site for proteins involved in DNA-damage response and repair. Selective inhibition of these protein-protein interactions has the potential to inhibit the DNA-damage response and to sensitize cancer cells to DNA-damaging agents without affecting other functions of RPA. To discover a potent, selective inhibitor of the RPA70N protein-protein interactions to test this hypothesis, we used NMR spectroscopy to identify fragment hits that bind to two adjacent sites in the basic cleft of RPA70N. High-resolution X-ray crystal structures of RPA70N-ligand complexes revealed how these fragments bind to RPA and guided the design of linked compounds that simultaneously occupy both sites. We have synthesized linked molecules that bind to RPA70N with submicromolar affinity and minimal disruption of RPA's interaction with ssDNA. .
Souza-Fagundes, E.M., Frank, A.O., Feldkamp, M.D., Dorset, D.C., Chazin, W.J., Rossanese, O.W., Olejniczak, E.T. & Fesik, S.W.
(2012). A high-throughput fluorescence polarization anisotropy assay for the 70N domain of replication protein A. Anal biochem,
Replication protein A (RPA) interacts with multiple checkpoint proteins and promotes signaling through the ATR kinase, a key regulator of checkpoint pathways in the mammalian response to DNA damage. In cancer cells, increased DNA repair activity contributes to resistance to chemotherapy. Therefore, small molecules that block binding of checkpoint proteins to RPA may inhibit the DNA damage response and, thus, sensitize cancer cells to DNA-damaging agents. Here we report on the development of a homogeneous, high-throughput fluorescence polarization assay for identifying compounds that block the critical protein-protein interaction site in the basic cleft of the 70N domain of RPA (RPA70N). A fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-labeled peptide derived from the ATR cofactor, ATRIP, was used as a probe in the binding assay. The ability of the assay to accurately detect relevant ligands was confirmed using peptides derived from ATRIP, RAD9, MRE11, and p53. The assay was validated for use in high-throughput screening using the Spectrum collection of 2000 compounds. The FPA assay was performed with a Z' factor of ≥ 0.76 in a 384-well format and identified several compounds capable of inhibiting the RPA70N binding interface..
Sun, Q., Burke, J.P., Phan, J., Burns, M.C., Olejniczak, E.T., Waterson, A.G., Lee, T., Rossanese, O.W. & Fesik, S.W.
(2012). Discovery of small molecules that bind to K-Ras and inhibit Sos-mediated activation. Angew chem int ed engl,
Stellwagen, J.C., Adjabeng, G.M., Arnone, M.R., Dickerson, S.H., Han, C., Hornberger, K.R., King, A.J., Mook, R.A., Petrov, K.G., Rheault, T.R., et al.
(2011). Development of potent B-RafV600E inhibitors containing an arylsulfonamide headgroup. Bioorg med chem lett,
A potent series of inhibitors against the B-Raf(V600E) kinase have been developed that show excellent activity in cellular assays and good oral bioavailability in rats. The key structural features of the series are an arylsulfonamide headgroup, a thiazole core, and a fluorine ortho to the sulfonamide nitrogen..
Losev, E., Papanikou, E., Rossanese, O.W. & Glick, B.S.
(2008). Cdc1p is an endoplasmic reticulum-localized putative lipid phosphatase that affects Golgi inheritance and actin polarization by activating Ca2+ signaling. Mol cell biol,
In the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, mutations in the essential gene CDC1 cause defects in Golgi inheritance and actin polarization. However, the biochemical function of Cdc1p is unknown. Previous work showed that cdc1 mutants accumulate intracellular Ca(2+) and display enhanced sensitivity to the extracellular Mn(2+) concentration, suggesting that Cdc1p might regulate divalent cation homeostasis. By contrast, our data indicate that Cdc1p is a Mn(2+)-dependent protein that can affect Ca(2+) levels. We identified a cdc1 allele that activates Ca(2+) signaling but does not show enhanced sensitivity to the Mn(2+) concentration. Furthermore, our studies show that Cdc1p is an endoplasmic reticulum-localized transmembrane protein with a putative phosphoesterase domain facing the lumen. cdc1 mutant cells accumulate an unidentified phospholipid, suggesting that Cdc1p may be a lipid phosphatase. Previous work showed that deletion of the plasma membrane Ca(2+) channel Cch1p partially suppressed the cdc1 growth phenotype, and we find that deletion of Cch1p also suppresses the Golgi inheritance and actin polarization phenotypes. The combined data fit a model in which the cdc1 mutant phenotypes result from accumulation of a phosphorylated lipid that activates Ca(2+) signaling..
Patel, J.C., Rossanese, O.W. & Galán, J.E.
(2005). The functional interface between Salmonella and its host cell: opportunities for therapeutic intervention. Trends pharmacol sci,
Salmonella is a facultative intracellular pathogen that causes diseases ranging from self-limiting enteritis to typhoid fever. This bacterium uses two type III secretion systems to deliver effector proteins directly into the host cell to promote infection and disease. Recent characterization of these virulence proteins and their host-cell targets is uncovering the molecular mechanisms of Salmonella pathogenesis and is revealing a picture of the atomic interface between this pathogen and its host. This level of analysis provides the possibility of designing novel therapeutics to disrupt infection and disease processes at the molecular level..
Jiang, X., Rossanese, O.W., Brown, N.F., Kujat-Choy, S., Galán, J.E., Finlay, B.B. & Brumell, J.H.
(2004). The related effector proteins SopD and SopD2 from Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium contribute to virulence during systemic infection of mice. Mol microbiol,
Salmonella resides within host cells in a vacuole that it modifies through the action of virulence proteins called effectors. Here we examined the role of two related effectors, SopD and SopD2, in Salmonella pathogenesis. Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) mutants lacking either sopD or sopD2 were attenuated for replication in the spleens of infected mice when competed against wild-type bacteria in mixed infection experiments. A double mutant lacking both effector genes did not display an additive attenuation of virulence in these experiments. The double mutant also competed equally with both of the single mutants. Deletion of either effector impaired bacterial replication in mouse macrophages but not human epithelial cells. Deletion of sopD2 impaired Salmonella's ability to form tubular membrane filaments [Salmonella-induced filaments (Sifs)] in infected cells; the number of Sifs decreased, whereas the number of pseudo-Sifs (thought to be a precursor of Sifs) was increased. Transfection of HeLa cells with the effector SifA induced the formation of Sif-like tubules and these were observed in greater size and number after co-transfection of SifA with SopD2. In infected cells, SifA and SopD2 were localized both to Sifs and to pseudo-Sifs. In contrast, deletion of sopD had no effect on Sif formation. Our results indicate that both SopD and SopD2 contribute to virulence in mice and suggest a functional relationship between these two proteins during systemic infection of the host..
Rossanese, O.W., Reinke, C.A., Bevis, B.J., Hammond, A.T., Sears, I.B., O'Connor, J. & Glick, B.S.
(2001). A role for actin, Cdc1p, and Myo2p in the inheritance of late Golgi elements in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J cell biol,
In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Golgi elements are present in the bud very early in the cell cycle. We have analyzed this Golgi inheritance process using fluorescence microscopy and genetics. In rapidly growing cells, late Golgi elements show an actin-dependent concentration at sites of polarized growth. Late Golgi elements are apparently transported into the bud along actin cables and are also retained in the bud by a mechanism that may involve actin. A visual screen for mutants defective in the inheritance of late Golgi elements yielded multiple alleles of CDC1. Mutations in CDC1 severely depolarize the actin cytoskeleton, and these mutations prevent late Golgi elements from being retained in the bud. The efficient localization of late Golgi elements to the bud requires the type V myosin Myo2p, further suggesting that actin plays a role in Golgi inheritance. Surprisingly, early and late Golgi elements are inherited by different pathways, with early Golgi elements localizing to the bud in a Cdc1p- and Myo2p-independent manner. We propose that early Golgi elements arise from ER membranes that are present in the bud. These two pathways of Golgi inheritance in S. cerevisiae resemble Golgi inheritance pathways in vertebrate cells..
Rossanese, O.W. & Glick, B.S.
(2001). Deconstructing Golgi inheritance. Traffic,
Eukaryotic cells use a variety of strategies to inherit the Golgi apparatus. During vertebrate mitosis, the Golgi reorganizes dramatically in a process that seems to be driven by the reversible fragmentation of existing Golgi structures and the temporary redistribution of Golgi components to the endoplasmic reticulum. Several proteins that participate in vertebrate Golgi inheritance have been identified, but their detailed functions remain unknown. A comparison between vertebrates and other eukaryotes reveals common mechanisms of Golgi inheritance. In many cell types, Golgi stacks undergo fission early in mitosis. Some cells exhibit a further Golgi breakdown that is probably due to a mitotic inhibition of membrane traffic. In all eukaryotes examined, Golgi inheritance involves either the partitioning of pre-existing Golgi elements between the daughter cells or the emergence of new Golgi structures from the endoplasmic reticulum, or some combination of these two pathways..
Rossanese, O.W., Soderholm, J., Bevis, B.J., Sears, I.B., O'Connor, J., Williamson, E.K. & Glick, B.S.
(1999). Golgi structure correlates with transitional endoplasmic reticulum organization in Pichia pastoris and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J cell biol,
Golgi stacks are often located near sites of "transitional ER" (tER), where COPII transport vesicles are produced. This juxtaposition may indicate that Golgi cisternae form at tER sites. To explore this idea, we examined two budding yeasts: Pichia pastoris, which has coherent Golgi stacks, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which has a dispersed Golgi. tER structures in the two yeasts were visualized using fusions between green fluorescent protein and COPII coat proteins. We also determined the localization of Sec12p, an ER membrane protein that initiates the COPII vesicle assembly pathway. In P. pastoris, Golgi stacks are adjacent to discrete tER sites that contain COPII coat proteins as well as Sec12p. This arrangement of the tER-Golgi system is independent of microtubules. In S. cerevisiae, COPII vesicles appear to be present throughout the cytoplasm and Sec12p is distributed throughout the ER, indicating that COPII vesicles bud from the entire ER network. We propose that P. pastoris has discrete tER sites and therefore generates coherent Golgi stacks, whereas S. cerevisiae has a delocalized tER and therefore generates a dispersed Golgi. These findings open the way for a molecular genetic analysis of tER sites..
Séron, K., Tieaho, V., Prescianotto-Baschong, C., Aust, T., Blondel, M.O., Guillaud, P., Devilliers, G., Rossanese, O.W., Glick, B.S., Riezman, H., et al.
(1998). A yeast t-SNARE involved in endocytosis. Mol biol cell,
The ORF YOL018c (TLG2) of Saccharomyces cerevisiae encodes a protein that belongs to the syntaxin protein family. The proteins of this family, t-SNAREs, are present on target organelles and are thought to participate in the specific interaction between vesicles and acceptor membranes in intracellular membrane trafficking. TLG2 is not an essential gene, and its deletion does not cause defects in the secretory pathway. However, its deletion in cells lacking the vacuolar ATPase subunit Vma2p leads to loss of viability, suggesting that Tlg2p is involved in endocytosis. In tlg2Delta cells, internalization was normal for two endocytic markers, the pheromone alpha-factor and the plasma membrane uracil permease. In contrast, degradation of alpha-factor and uracil permease was delayed in tlg2Delta cells. Internalization of positively charged Nanogold shows that the endocytic pathway is perturbed in the mutant, which accumulates Nanogold in primary endocytic vesicles and shows a greatly reduced complement of early endosomes. These results strongly suggest that Tlg2p is a t-SNARE involved in early endosome biogenesis..
Sears, I.B., O'Connor, J., Rossanese, O.W. & Glick, B.S.
(1998). A versatile set of vectors for constitutive and regulated gene expression in Pichia pastoris. Yeast,
The budding yeast Pichia pastoris is an attractive system for exploring certain questions in cell biology, but experimental use of this organism has been limited by a lack of convenient expression vectors. Here we describe a set of compact vectors that should allow for the expression of a wide range of endogenous or foreign genes in P. pastoris. A gene of interest is inserted into a modified pUC19 polylinker; targeted integration into the genome then results in stable and uniform expression of this gene. The utility of these vectors was illustrated by expressing the bacterial beta-glucuronidase (GUS) gene. Constitutive GUS expression was obtained with the strong GAP promoter or the moderate YPT1 promoter. The regulatable AOX1 promoter yielded very strong GUS expression in methanol-grown cells, negligible expression in glucose-grown cells, and intermediate expression in mannitol-grown cells. GenBank Accession Numbers are: pIB1, AF027958; pIB2, AF0279959; pIB3, AF027960; pIB4, AF027961..