Nichols, H.B., Schoemaker, M.J., Cai, J., Xu, J., Wright, L.B., Brook, M.N., Jones, M.E., Adami, H.-., Baglietto, L., Bertrand, K.A., et al.
(2018). Breast Cancer Risk After Recent Childbirth: A Pooled Analysis of 15 Prospective Studies. Ann intern med,
Background: Parity is widely recognized as protective for breast cancer, but breast cancer risk may be increased shortly after childbirth. Whether this risk varies with breastfeeding, family history of breast cancer, or specific tumor subtype has rarely been evaluated. Objective: To characterize breast cancer risk in relation to recent childbirth. Design: Pooled analysis of individual-level data from 15 prospective cohort studies. Setting: The international Premenopausal Breast Cancer Collaborative Group. Participants: Women younger than 55 years. Measurements: During 9.6 million person-years of follow-up, 18 826 incident cases of breast cancer were diagnosed. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs for breast cancer were calculated using Cox proportional hazards regression. Results: Compared with nulliparous women, parous women had an HR for breast cancer that peaked about 5 years after birth (HR, 1.80 [95% CI, 1.63 to 1.99]) before decreasing to 0.77 (CI, 0.67 to 0.88) after 34 years. The association crossed over from positive to negative about 24 years after birth. The overall pattern was driven by estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancer; no crossover was seen for ER-negative cancer. Increases in breast cancer risk after childbirth were pronounced when combined with a family history of breast cancer and were greater for women who were older at first birth or who had more births. Breastfeeding did not modify overall risk patterns. Limitations: Breast cancer diagnoses during pregnancy were not uniformly distinguishable from early postpartum diagnoses. Data on human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) oncogene overexpression were limited. Conclusion: Compared with nulliparous women, parous women have an increased risk for breast cancer for more than 20 years after childbirth. Health care providers should consider recent childbirth a risk factor for breast cancer in young women. Primary Funding Source: The Avon Foundation, the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Breast Cancer Now and the UK National Health Service, and the Institute of Cancer Research..
Schoemaker, M.J., Folkerd, E.J., Jones, M.E., Rae, M., Allen, S., Ashworth, A., Dowsett, M. & Swerdlow, A.J.
(2014). Combined effects of endogenous sex hormone levels and mammographic density on postmenopausal breast cancer risk: results from the Breakthrough Generations Study. Br j cancer,
BACKGROUND: Mammographic density and sex hormone levels are strong risk factors for breast cancer, but it is unclear whether they represent the same aetiological entity or are independent risk factors. METHODS: Within the Breakthrough Generations Study cohort, we conducted a case-control study of 265 postmenopausal breast cancer cases and 343 controls with prediagnostic mammograms and blood samples. Plasma was assayed for oestradiol, testosterone and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) concentrations and mammographic density assessed by Cumulus. RESULTS: Oestradiol and testosterone were negatively and SHBG positively associated with percentage density and absolute dense area, but after adjusting for body mass index the associations remained significant only for SHBG. Breast cancer risk was independently and significantly positively associated with percentage density (P=0.002), oestradiol (P=0.002) and testosterone (P=0.007) levels. Women in the highest tertile of both density and sex hormone level were at greatest risk, with an odds ratio of 7.81 (95% confidence interval (CI): 2.89-21.1) for oestradiol and 4.57 (95% CI: 1.75-11.9) for testosterone and high density compared with those who were in the lowest tertiles. The cumulative risk of breast cancer in the highest oestradiol and density tertiles, representing 8% of controls, was estimated as 12.8% at ages 50-69 years and 19.4% at ages 20-79 years, and in the lowest tertiles was 1.7% and 4.3%, respectively. Associations of breast cancer risk with tertiles of mammographic dense area were less strong than for percentage density. CONCLUSIONS: Endogenous sex hormone levels and mammographic density are independent risk factors for postmenopausal breast cancer, which in combination can identify women who might benefit from increased frequency of screening and chemoprophylaxis..
Bodicoat, D.H., Schoemaker, M.J., Jones, M.E., McFadden, E., Griffin, J., Ashworth, A. & Swerdlow, A.J.
(2014). Timing of pubertal stages and breast cancer risk: the Breakthrough Generations Study. Breast cancer res,
INTRODUCTION: Breast development and hormonal changes at puberty might affect breast cancer risk, but epidemiological analyses have focussed largely on age at menarche and not at other pubertal stages. METHODS: We investigated associations between the timing of pubertal stages and breast cancer risk using data from a cohort study of 104,931 women (Breakthrough Generations Study, UK, 2003-2013). Pubertal variables were reported retrospectively at baseline. Breast cancer risk was analysed using Cox regression models with breast cancer diagnosis as the outcome of interest, attained age as the underlying time variable, and adjustment for potentially confounding variables. RESULTS: During follow-up (mean = 4.1 years), 1094 breast cancers (including ductal carcinoma in situ) occurred. An increased breast cancer risk was associated with earlier thelarche (age when breast growth begins; HR [95% CI] = 1.23 [1.02, 1.48], 1 [referent] and 0.80 [0.69, 0.93] for ≤10, 11-12 and ≥13 years respectively), menarche (initiation of menses; 1.06 [0.93, 1.21], 1 [referent] and 0.78 [0.62, 0.99] for ≤12, 13-14 and ≥15 years), regular periods (0.99 [0.83, 1.18], 1 [referent] and 0.74 [0.59, 0.92] for ≤12, 13-14 and ≥15 years) and age reached adult height (1.25 [1.03, 1.52], 1 [referent] and 1.07 [0.87, 1.32] for ≤14, 15-16 and ≥17 years), and with increased time between thelarche and menarche (0.87 [0.65, 1.15], 1 [referent], 1.14 [0.96, 1.34] and 1.27 [1.04, 1.55] for <0, 0, 1 and ≥2 years), and shorter time between menarche and regular periods (1 [referent], 0.87 [0.73, 1.04] and 0.66 [0.50, 0.88] for 0, 1 and ≥2 years). These associations were generally similar when considered separately for premenopausal and postmenopausal breast cancer. CONCLUSIONS: Breast duct development may be a time of heightened susceptibility to risk of carcinogenesis, and greater attention needs to be given to the relation of breast cancer risk to the different stages of puberty..
Jones, M.E., Schoemaker, M., Rae, M., Folkerd, E.J., Dowsett, M., Ashworth, A. & Swerdlow, A.J.
(2013). Changes in estradiol and testosterone levels in postmenopausal women after changes in body mass index. J clin endocrinol metab,
CONTEXT: Endogenous sex hormones are risk factors for postmenopausal breast cancer. A potential route for favorable hormonal modification is weight loss. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to measure change in plasma estradiol and testosterone levels in postmenopausal women in relation to change in body mass index (BMI) and plasma leptin. SETTING: The setting was a cohort study of over 100,000 female volunteers from the general population, United Kingdom. PARTICIPANTS: The participants were a sample of 177 postmenopausal women aged over 45 years who provided blood samples during 2004-2005 and again during 2010-2011. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Outcomes were percentage change in plasma estradiol and testosterone levels per 1 kg/m(2) change in BMI and per 1 ng/mL change in plasma leptin. RESULTS: Among women with reduction in BMI, estradiol decreased 12.7% (95% confidence interval: [6.4%, 19.5%]; P < .0001) per kg/m(2) and among women with increased BMI estradiol increased 6.4% [0.2%, 12.9%] (P = .042). The corresponding figures for testosterone were 10.7% [3.0%, 19.0%] (P = .006) and 1.9% [-5.4%, 9.7%] (P = .61) per kg/m(2). For women with decreases and increases in leptin, estradiol decreased by 3.6% [1.3%, 6.0%] (P = .003) per ng/mL and increased by 1.7% [-0.3%, 3.6%] (P = .094), respectively. The corresponding figures for testosterone were 4.8% [2.0%, 7.8%] (P = .009) and 0.3% [-2.0%, 2.6%] (P = .82) per ng/mL. CONCLUSIONS: In postmenopausal women, changes in BMI and plasma leptin occurring over several years are associated with changes in estradiol and testosterone levels. The results suggest that fat loss by an individual can result in substantial decreases in postmenopausal estradiol and testosterone levels and provides support for weight management to lessen breast cancer risk..
Murray, A., Bennett, C.E., Perry, J.R., Weedon, M.N., Jacobs, P.A., Morris, D.H., Orr, N., Schoemaker, M.J., Jones, M., Ashworth, A., et al.
(2011). Common genetic variants are significant risk factors for early menopause: results from the Breakthrough Generations Study. Hum mol genet,
Women become infertile approximately 10 years before menopause, and as more women delay childbirth into their 30s, the number of women who experience infertility is likely to increase. Tests that predict the timing of menopause would allow women to make informed reproductive decisions. Current predictors are only effective just prior to menopause, and there are no long-range indicators. Age at menopause and early menopause (EM) are highly heritable, suggesting a genetic aetiology. Recent genome-wide scans have identified four loci associated with variation in the age of normal menopause (40-60 years). We aimed to determine whether theses loci are also risk factors for EM. We tested the four menopause-associated genetic variants in a cohort of approximately 2000 women with menopause≤45 years from the Breakthrough Generations Study (BGS). All four variants significantly increased the odds of having EM. Comparing the 4.5% of individuals with the lowest number of risk alleles (two or three) with the 3.0% with the highest number (eight risk alleles), the odds ratio was 4.1 (95% CI 2.4-7.1, P=4.0×10(-7)). In combination, the four variants discriminated EM cases with a receiver operator characteristic area under the curve of 0.6. Four common genetic variants identified by genome-wide association studies, had a significant impact on the odds of having EM in an independent cohort from the BGS. The discriminative power is still limited, but as more variants are discovered they may be useful for predicting reproductive lifespan..
Fletcher, O., Johnson, N., Orr, N., Hosking, F.J., Gibson, L.J., Walker, K., Zelenika, D., Gut, I., Heath, S., Palles, C., et al.
(2011). Novel breast cancer susceptibility locus at 9q31 2: results of a genome-wide association study. J natl cancer inst,
BACKGROUND: Genome-wide association studies have identified several common genetic variants associated with breast cancer risk. It is likely, however, that a substantial proportion of such loci have not yet been discovered. METHODS: We compared 296,114 tagging single-nucleotide polymorphisms in 1694 breast cancer case subjects (92% with two primary cancers or at least two affected first-degree relatives) and 2365 control subjects, with validation in three independent series totaling 11,880 case subjects and 12,487 control subjects. Odds ratios (ORs) and associated 95% confidence intervals (CIs) in each stage and all stages combined were calculated using unconditional logistic regression. Heterogeneity was evaluated with Cochran Q and I(2) statistics. All statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS: We identified a novel risk locus for breast cancer at 9q31.2 (rs865686: OR = 0.89, 95% CI = 0.85 to 0.92, P = 1.75 × 10(-10)). This single-nucleotide polymorphism maps to a gene desert, the nearest genes being Kruppel-like factor 4 (KLF4, 636 kb centromeric), RAD23 homolog B (RAD23B, 794 kb centromeric), and actin-like 7A (ACTL7A, 736 kb telomeric). We also identified two variants (rs3734805 and rs9383938) mapping to 6q25.1 estrogen receptor 1 (ESR1), which were associated with breast cancer in subjects of northern European ancestry (rs3734805: OR = 1.19, 95% CI = 1.11 to 1.27, P = 1.35 × 10(-7); rs9383938: OR = 1.18, 95% CI = 1.11 to 1.26, P = 1.41 × 10(-7)). A variant mapping to 10q26.13, approximately 300 kb telomeric to the established risk locus within the second intron of FGFR2, was also associated with breast cancer risk, although not at genome-wide statistical significance (rs10510102: OR = 1.12, 95% CI = 1.07 to 1.17, P = 1.58 × 10(-6)). CONCLUSIONS: These findings provide further evidence on the role of genetic variation in the etiology of breast cancer. Fine mapping will be needed to identify causal variants and to determine their functional effects..
Schoemaker, M.J., Robertson, L., Wigertz, A., Jones, M.E., Hosking, F.J., Feychting, M., Lönn, S., McKinney, P.A., Hepworth, S.J., Muir, K.R., et al.
(2010). Interaction between 5 genetic variants and allergy in glioma risk. Am j epidemiol,
The etiology of glioma is barely known. Epidemiologic studies have provided evidence for an inverse relation between glioma risk and allergic disease. Genome-wide association data have identified common genetic variants at 5p15.33 (rs2736100, TERT), 8q24.21 (rs4295627, CCDC26), 9p21.3 (rs4977756, CDKN2A-CDKN2B), 11q23.3 (rs498872, PHLDB1), and 20q13.33 (rs6010620, RTEL1) as determinants of glioma risk. The authors investigated whether there is interaction between the effects of allergy and these 5 variants on glioma risk. Data from 5 case-control studies carried out in Denmark, Finland, Sweden, and the United Kingdom (2000-2004) were used, totaling 1,029 cases and 1,668 controls. Risk was inversely associated with asthma, hay fever, eczema, and "any allergy," significantly for each factor except asthma, and was significantly positively associated with number of risk alleles for each of the 5 single nucleotide polymorphisms. There was interaction between asthma and rs498872 (greater protective effect of asthma with increasing number of risk alleles; per-allele interaction odds ratio (OR) = 0.65, P = 0.041), between "any allergy" and rs4977756 (smaller protective effect; interaction OR = 1.27, P = 0.047), and between "any allergy" and rs6010620 (greater protective effect; interaction OR = 0.70, P = 0.017). Case-only analyses provided further support for atopy interactions for rs4977756 and rs498872. This study provides evidence for possible gene-environment interactions in glioma development..
Cardis, E., Deltour, I., Vrijheid, M., Combalot, E., Moissonnier, M., Tardy, H., Armstrong, B., Giles, G., Brown, J., Siemiatycki, J., et al.
(2010). Brain tumour risk in relation to mobile telephone use: results of the INTERPHONE international case-control study. Int j epidemiol,
Methods An interview-based case-control study with 2708 glioma and 2409 meningioma cases and matched controls was conducted in 13 countries using a common protocol.Results A reduced odds ratio (OR) related to ever having been a regular mobile phone user was seen for glioma [OR 0.81; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.70-0.94] and meningioma (OR 0.79; 95% CI 0.68-0.91), possibly reflecting participation bias or other methodological limitations. No elevated OR was observed >= 10 years after first phone use (glioma: OR 0.98; 95% CI 0.76-1.26; meningioma: OR 0.83; 95% CI 0.61-1.14). ORs were < 1.0 for all deciles of lifetime number of phone calls and nine deciles of cumulative call time. In the 10th decile of recalled cumulative call time, >= 1640 h, the OR was 1.40 (95% CI 1.03-1.89) for glioma, and 1.15 (95% CI 0.81-1.62) for meningioma; but there are implausible values of reported use in this group. ORs for glioma tended to be greater in the temporal lobe than in other lobes of the brain, but the CIs around the lobe-specific estimates were wide. ORs for glioma tended to be greater in subjects who reported usual phone use on the same side of the head as their tumour than on the opposite side.Conclusions Overall, no increase in risk of glioma or meningioma was observed with use of mobile phones. There were suggestions of an increased risk of glioma at the highest exposure levels, but biases and error prevent a causal interpretation. The possible effects of long-term heavy use of mobile phones require further investigation..
Schoemaker, M.J. & Swerdlow, A.J.
(2009). Risk of pituitary tumors in cellular phone users: a case-control study. Epidemiology,
BACKGROUND: There is public concern and scientific interest regarding a potential effect of cellular phone use on the risk of developing intracranial tumors. Tumors of the pituitary gland have barely been investigated in this context, but are of interest because of their intracranial location. METHODS: We conducted a population-based case-control study between 2001 and 2005 of the risk of developing pituitary tumors in relation to cellular phone use in Southeast England, with 291 cases and 630 controls. Detailed information on cellular phone use was collected by personal interview. RESULTS: Tumor risk was not associated with cellular phone use overall (adjusted odds ratio = 0.9, 95% confidence interval = 0.7-1.3), and was not appreciably increased 10 or more years after first use (1.0; 0.5-1.9), or after 10 or more years of cumulative use (1.1; 0.5-2.4). Odds ratios were 1.2 (0.7-1.9) for users in the highest quartile of cumulative number of calls and 1.1 (0.7-1.7) in the highest quartile of hours of use. Separate analyses of analog and digital phone use showed no associations with tumor risk. CONCLUSIONS: We found no evidence that the risk of developing pituitary tumors is associated with cellular phone use for the induction time periods and intensities of use observed..
Shete, S., Hosking, F.J., Robertson, L.B., Dobbins, S.E., Sanson, M., Malmer, B., Simon, M., Marie, Y., Boisselier, B., Delattre, J.-., et al.
(2009). Genome-wide association study identifies five susceptibility loci for glioma. Nat genet,
To identify risk variants for glioma, we conducted a meta-analysis of two genome-wide association studies by genotyping 550K tagging SNPs in a total of 1,878 cases and 3,670 controls, with validation in three additional independent series totaling 2,545 cases and 2,953 controls. We identified five risk loci for glioma at 5p15.33 (rs2736100, TERT; P = 1.50 x 10(-17)), 8q24.21 (rs4295627, CCDC26; P = 2.34 x 10(-18)), 9p21.3 (rs4977756, CDKN2A-CDKN2B; P = 7.24 x 10(-15)), 20q13.33 (rs6010620, RTEL1; P = 2.52 x 10(-12)) and 11q23.3 (rs498872, PHLDB1; P = 1.07 x 10(-8)). These data show that common low-penetrance susceptibility alleles contribute to the risk of developing glioma and provide insight into disease causation of this primary brain tumor..
Schoemaker, M.J., Swerdlow, A.J., Higgins, C.D., Wright, A.F., Jacobs, P.A. & UK Clinical Cytogenetics Group,
(2008). Cancer incidence in women with Turner syndrome in Great Britain: a national cohort study. Lancet oncol,
BACKGROUND: Turner syndrome, one of the most common cytogenetic abnormalities, is characterised by complete or partial X-chromosome monosomy. Cancer risks in women with Turner syndrome have not been clearly established. We aimed to compare the risk of cancer in women with this syndrome with that of the general population. METHODS: We formed a national cohort of 3425 women who were cytogenetically diagnosed with Turner syndrome in Great Britain between 1959 and 2002. Identifying information for these patients was sent to the National Health Service Central Register (NHSCR) for England and Wales and to the NHSCR for Scotland. Individuals who were identified on this register were followed-up for cancer incidence. Standardised incidence ratios (SIRs) and 95% CIs were calculated on the basis of the number of cancers observed compared with that expected based on national incidence rates. Cumulative risk estimates were obtained by use of the Kaplan-Meier method. FINDINGS: A total of 58,299 person-years were accrued during the study, with a mean of 17.0 years (SD 8.6) follow-up per patient. 73 malignancies other than non-melanoma skin cancer occurred (SIR 0.9 [95% CI 0.7-1.2]). Risks were significantly increased for tumours of the CNS (n=13; 4.3 [2.3-7.4]), especially for meningioma (n=7; 12.0 [4.8-24.8]) and childhood brain tumours (n=3; 10.3 [2.1-30.1]), and for cancers of the bladder and urethra (n=5; 4.0 [1.3-9.2]) and eye (n=2; 10.5 [1.3-37.9]), compared with the general population. However, the risk of breast cancer was significantly decreased (n=10; 0.3 [0.2-0.6]). The SIR for cutaneous melanoma was 2.2 (95% CI 1.0-4.4; n=8), and one of the ocular cancers was a melanoma. The risk of corpus uteri cancer was significantly increased at ages 15-44 years (n=3; 8.0 [1.6-23.2]). During follow-up, five women, all with a Y-chromosome lineage, developed gonadoblastoma of the ovary, corresponding to a cumulative risk of 7.9% (95% CI 3.1-19.0) by age 25 years in this group. INTERPRETATION: This study shows that, in addition to having an increased risk of gonadoblastoma, women with Turner syndrome seem to be at increased risk for meningioma and childhood brain tumours, and possibly bladder cancer, melanoma, and corpus uteri cancer, but are at a decreased risk for breast cancer. Reasons for these risks might relate to genetic and hormonal factors or to the effects of hormonal treatments given to women with Turner syndrome..
Bethke, L., Murray, A., Webb, E., Schoemaker, M., Muir, K., McKinney, P., Hepworth, S., Dimitropoulou, P., Lophatananon, A., Feychting, M., et al.
(2008). Comprehensive analysis of DNA repair gene variants and risk of meningioma. J natl cancer inst,
BACKGROUND: Meningiomas account for up to 37% of all primary brain tumors. Genetic susceptibility to meningioma is well established, with the risk among relatives of meningioma patients being approximately threefold higher than that in the general population. A relationship between risk of meningioma and exposure to ionizing radiation is also well known and led us to examine whether variants in DNA repair genes contribute to disease susceptibility. METHODS: We analyzed 1127 tagging single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that were selected to capture most of the common variation in 136 DNA repair genes in five case-control series (631 case patients and 637 control subjects) from four countries in Europe. We also analyzed 388 putative functional SNPs in these genes for their association with meningioma. All statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS: The SNP rs4968451, which maps to intron 4 of the gene that encodes breast cancer susceptibility gene 1-interacting protein 1, was consistently associated with an increased risk of developing meningioma. Across the five studies, the association was highly statistically significant (trend odds ratio = 1.57, 95% confidence interval = 1.28 to 1.93; P(trend) = 8.95 x 10(-6); P = .009 after adjusting for multiple testing). CONCLUSIONS: We have identified a novel association between rs4968451 and meningioma risk. Because approximately 28% of the European population are carriers of at-risk genotypes for rs4968451, the variant is likely to make a substantial contribution to the development of meningioma..
Schoemaker, M.J., Swerdlow, A.J., Ahlbom, A., Auvinen, A., Blaasaas, K.G., Cardis, E., Christensen, H.C., Feychting, M., Hepworth, S.J., Johansen, C., et al.
(2005). Mobile phone use and risk of acoustic neuroma: results of the Interphone case-control study in five North European countries. Br j cancer,
There is public concern that use of mobile phones could increase the risk of brain tumours. If such an effect exists, acoustic neuroma would be of particular concern because of the proximity of the acoustic nerve to the handset. We conducted, to a shared protocol, six population-based case-control studies in four Nordic countries and the UK to assess the risk of acoustic neuroma in relation to mobile phone use. Data were collected by personal interview from 678 cases of acoustic neuroma and 3553 controls. The risk of acoustic neuroma in relation to regular mobile phone use in the pooled data set was not raised (odds ratio (OR) = 0.9, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.7-1.1). There was no association of risk with duration of use, lifetime cumulative hours of use or number of calls, for phone use overall or for analogue or digital phones separately. Risk of a tumour on the same side of the head as reported phone use was raised for use for 10 years or longer (OR = 1.8, 95% CI: 1.1-3.1). The study suggests that there is no substantial risk of acoustic neuroma in the first decade after starting mobile phone use. However, an increase in risk after longer term use or after a longer lag period could not be ruled out..
Swerdlow, A.J., Schoemaker, M.J., Higgins, C.D., Wright, A.F., Jacobs, P.A. & UK Clinical Cytogenetics Group,
(2005). Cancer incidence and mortality in men with Klinefelter syndrome: a cohort study. J natl cancer inst,
BACKGROUND: Men with Klinefelter syndrome have one or more extra X chromosomes and have endocrine abnormalities. Case reports have led to suggestions that men with Klinefelter syndrome have elevated risks of several cancers, but published cohort studies have been relatively small. We conducted a nationwide cohort study to examine these risks. METHODS: We followed a cohort of 3518 men who had been cytogenetically diagnosed with Klinefelter syndrome in Britain from 1959 through 2002 and compared their cancer incidence and mortality with that of men in the national population. All statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS: The standardized mortality ratio (SMR) for all cancers was 1.2 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.0 to 1.4). Compared with the general population, men with Klinefelter syndrome had higher mortality from lung cancer (SMR = 1.5, 95% CI = 1.0 to 2.0), breast cancer (SMR = 57.8, 95% CI = 18.8 to 135.0), and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (SMR = 3.5, 95% CI = 1.6 to 6.6) and lower mortality from prostate cancer (SMR = 0, 95% CI = 0 to 0.7). The standardized mortality ratios were particularly high for breast cancer among men with 47,XXY mosaicism (SMR = 222.8, 95% CI = 45.9 to 651.0) and for non-Hodgkin lymphoma among men with a 48,XXYY constitution (SMR = 36.7, 95% CI = 4.4 to 132.5). The cancer incidence data corroborated these associations. CONCLUSIONS: These results support a hormonal etiology for breast cancer in men and for prostate cancer and suggest that men with Klinefelter syndrome may be at substantially elevated risks for non-Hodgkin lymphoma, breast cancer, and, perhaps, lung cancer..
Swerdlow, A., Schoemaker, M., Wright, L., Brook, M. & Jones, M.
Association of Body Mass Index and Age With Subsequent Breast Cancer Risk in Premenopausal Women. Jama - journal of the american medical association,