Sud, A., Morilla, R., Ethell, M., Taussig, D. & Liapis, K.
(2015). Green-grey crystals in acute myeloid leukaemia. Br j haematol,
Miraki-Moud, F., Ghazaly, E., Ariza-McNaughton, L., Hodby, K.A., Clear, A., Anjos-Afonso, F., Liapis, K., Grantham, M., Sohrabi, F., Cavenagh, J., et al.
(2015). Arginine deprivation using pegylated arginine deiminase has activity against primary acute myeloid leukemia cells in vivo. Blood,
The strategy of enzymatic degradation of amino acids to deprive malignant cells of important nutrients is an established component of induction therapy of acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Here we show that acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells from most patients with AML are deficient in a critical enzyme required for arginine synthesis, argininosuccinate synthetase-1 (ASS1). Thus, these ASS1-deficient AML cells are dependent on importing extracellular arginine. We therefore investigated the effect of plasma arginine deprivation using pegylated arginine deiminase (ADI-PEG 20) against primary AMLs in a xenograft model and in vitro. ADI-PEG 20 alone induced responses in 19 of 38 AMLs in vitro and 3 of 6 AMLs in vivo, leading to caspase activation in sensitive AMLs. ADI-PEG 20-resistant AMLs showed higher relative expression of ASS1 than sensitive AMLs. This suggests that the resistant AMLs survive by producing arginine through this metabolic pathway and ASS1 expression could be used as a biomarker for response. Sensitive AMLs showed more avid uptake of arginine from the extracellular environment consistent with their auxotrophy for arginine. The combination of ADI-PEG 20 and cytarabine chemotherapy was more effective than either treatment alone resulting in responses in 6 of 6 AMLs tested in vivo. Our data show that arginine deprivation is a reasonable strategy in AML that paves the way for clinical trials. .
Liapis, K., Taussig, D., Cotter, F.E. & Gribben, J.G.
(2014). Cutaneous cryptococcosis in Hodgkin lymphoma. Br j haematol,
Griessinger, E., Anjos-Afonso, F., Pizzitola, I., Rouault-Pierre, K., Vargaftig, J., Taussig, D., Gribben, J., Lassailly, F. & Bonnet, D.
(2014). A niche-like culture system allowing the maintenance of primary human acute myeloid leukemia-initiating cells: a new tool to decipher their chemoresistance and self-renewal mechanisms. Stem cells transl med,
Acute myeloid leukemia-initiating cells (LICs) are responsible for the emergence of leukemia and relapse after chemotherapy. Despite their identification more than 15 years ago, our understanding of the mechanisms responsible for their self-renewal activity and their chemoresistance remains poor. The slow progress in this area is partly due to the difficulty of studying these cells ex vivo. Indeed, current studies are reliant on xenotransplantation assays in immunodeficient mice. In this paper, we report that by modeling key elements of the bone marrow niche using different stromal feeder layers and hypoxic culture conditions, we can maintain LICs over at least 3 weeks and support their self-renewal properties demonstrated through primary and secondary successful xenograft. We provide a proof of principle that this niche-like culture system can be used to study LIC chemoresistance following in vitro cytarabine treatment similarly to the xenograft chemotherapy model. We found that although LICs are believed to be more chemoresistant than non-LICs, functionally defined LICs are not enriched after cytarabine treatment, and heterogeneity in their resistance to treatment can be seen between patients and even within the same patient. We present a culture system that can be used as an in vitro surrogate for xenotransplantation and that has the potential to dramatically increase the throughput of the investigation of LICs. This would further provide the means by which to identify and target the functionality of the different signaling pathways involved in the maintenance and resistance of LICs to improve acute myeloid leukemia treatments. .
Liapis, K., Chung, Y., Akhtar, W. & Taussig, D.
(2014). A patient with rheumatoid arthritis, cryoglobulinaemia, and an "accidental" finding. Bmj,
Manodoro, F., Marzec, J., Chaplin, T., Miraki-Moud, F., Moravcsik, E., Jovanovic, J.V., Wang, J., Iqbal, S., Taussig, D., Grimwade, D., et al.
(2014). Loss of imprinting at the 14q32 domain is associated with microRNA overexpression in acute promyelocytic leukemia. Blood,
Distinct patterns of DNA methylation characterize the epigenetic landscape of promyelocytic leukemia/retinoic acid receptor-α (PML-RARα)-associated acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). We previously reported that the microRNAs (miRNAs) clustered on chromosome 14q32 are overexpressed only in APL. Here, using high-throughput bisulfite sequencing, we identified an APL-associated hypermethylation at the upstream differentially methylated region (DMR), which also included the site motifs for the enhancer blocking protein CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF). Comparing the profiles of diagnostic/remission paired patient samples, we show that hypermethylation was acquired in APL in a monoallelic manner. The cytosine guanine dinucleotide status of the DMR correlated with expression of the miRNAs following a characteristic position-dependent pattern. Moreover, a signature of hypermethylation was also detected in leukemic cells from an established transgenic PML-RARA APL mouse model at the orthologous region on chromosome 12, including the CTCF binding site located upstream from the mouse miRNA cluster. These results, together with the demonstration that the region does not show DNA methylation changes during myeloid differentiation, provide evidence that 14q32 hypermethylation is implicated in the pathogenesis of APL. We propose a model in which loss of imprinting at the 14q32 domain leads to overexpression of the miRNAs in APL. .
Anjos-Afonso, F., Currie, E., Palmer, H.G., Foster, K.E., Taussig, D.C. & Bonnet, D.
(2013). CD34(-) cells at the apex of the human hematopoietic stem cell hierarchy have distinctive cellular and molecular signatures. Cell stem cell,
In addition to well-characterized CD34(+) hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs), the human hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) hierarchy contains a rare CD34(-) population with severe combined immunodeficiency-repopulating capacity. However, little is known about the molecular characteristics of these CD34(-) cells or their relationship to the CD34(+) populations. Here, we show that the self-renewing Lin(-)CD34(-)CD38(-)CD93(hi) population contains cells that not only function as HSCs, but can also be placed above the CD34(+) populations in the hematopoietic hierarchy. These cells have an active Notch pathway, in which signaling through Delta4 is crucial for maintenance of the primitive state, and combined signals from Jagged1 and TGF-β are important in controlling its quiescence. They are also refractory to proliferative signals and show a repressed canonical Wnt pathway, in part regulated by Notch. Overall, therefore, CD34(-) cells represent an immature and quiescent human HSC population maintained through a distinctive network of cellular signaling interactions. .
Rouault-Pierre, K., Lopez-Onieva, L., Foster, K., Anjos-Afonso, F., Lamrissi-Garcia, I., Serrano-Sanchez, M., Mitter, R., Ivanovic, Z., de Verneuil, H., Gribben, J., et al.
(2013). HIF-2α protects human hematopoietic stem/progenitors and acute myeloid leukemic cells from apoptosis induced by endoplasmic reticulum stress. Cell stem cell,
Hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) are exposed to low levels of oxygen in the bone marrow niche, and hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) are the main regulators of cellular responses to oxygen variation. Recent studies using conditional knockout mouse models have unveiled a major role for HIF-1α in the maintenance of murine HSCs; however, the role of HIF-2α is still unclear. Here, we show that knockdown of HIF-2α, and to a much lesser extent HIF-1α, impedes the long-term repopulating ability of human CD34(+) umbilical cord blood cells. HIF-2α-deficient HSPCs display increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which subsequently stimulates endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and triggers apoptosis by activation of the unfolded-protein-response (UPR) pathway. HIF-2α deregulation also significantly decreased engraftment ability of human acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells. Overall, our data demonstrate a key role for HIF-2α in the maintenance of human HSPCs and in the survival of primary AML cells. .
Davies, J.K., Taussig, D., Oakervee, H., Smith, M., Agrawal, S., Cavenagh, J.D. & Gribben, J.G.
(2013). Long-term survival with low toxicity after allogeneic transplantation for acute myeloid leukaemia and myelodysplasia using non-myeloablative conditioning without T cell depletion. Br j haematol,
The toxicity burden and long-term anti-leukaemic effect of non-myeloablative (NMA) allogeneic haematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (AHSCT) for acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) and myelodysplasia (MDS) remains undefined. We report the outcome of 56 patients with AML/MDS transplanted from human leucocyte antigen-matched donors using NMA conditioning without T-cell depletion. With a median follow-up of 5 years, treatment-related mortality was 9% and current disease-free survival (CDFS) was 45% (overall) and 55% (patients transplanted in remission). Development of graft-versus-host disease upon withdrawal of post-transplant immunosuppression was associated with less relapse and better CDFS. These data confirm that NMA AHSCT without T-cell depletion is safe and can result in sustained remissions of AML/MDS. .
Miraki-Moud, F., Anjos-Afonso, F., Hodby, K.A., Griessinger, E., Rosignoli, G., Lillington, D., Jia, L., Davies, J.K., Cavenagh, J., Smith, M., et al.
(2013). Acute myeloid leukemia does not deplete normal hematopoietic stem cells but induces cytopenias by impeding their differentiation. Proc natl acad sci u s a,
Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) induces bone marrow (BM) failure in patients, predisposing them to life-threatening infections and bleeding. The mechanism by which AML mediates this complication is unknown but one widely accepted explanation is that AML depletes the BM of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) through displacement. We sought to investigate how AML affects hematopoiesis by quantifying residual normal hematopoietic subpopulations in the BM of immunodeficient mice transplanted with human AML cells with a range of genetic lesions. The numbers of normal mouse HSCs were preserved whereas normal progenitors and other downstream hematopoietic cells were reduced following transplantation of primary AMLs, findings consistent with a differentiation block at the HSC-progenitor transition, rather than displacement. Once removed from the leukemic environment, residual normal hematopoietic cells differentiated normally and outcompeted steady-state hematopoietic cells, indicating that this effect is reversible. We confirmed the clinical significance of this by ex vivo analysis of normal hematopoietic subpopulations from BM of 16 patients with AML. This analysis demonstrated that the numbers of normal CD34(+)CD38(-) stem-progenitor cells were similar in the BM of AML patients and controls, whereas normal CD34(+)CD38(+) progenitors were reduced. Residual normal CD34(+) cells from patients with AML were enriched in long-term culture, initiating cells and repopulating cells compared with controls. In conclusion the data do not support the idea that BM failure in AML is due to HSC depletion. Rather, AML inhibits production of downstream hematopoietic cells by impeding differentiation at the HSC-progenitor transition. .
Vargaftig, J., Taussig, D.C., Griessinger, E., Anjos-Afonso, F., Lister, T.A., Cavenagh, J., Oakervee, H., Gribben, J. & Bonnet, D.
(2012). Frequency of leukemic initiating cells does not depend on the xenotransplantation model used. Leukemia,
Joshi, N.M., Hassan, S., Jasani, P., Dixon, S., Cavenagh, J.D., Oakervee, H.E., Smith, M., Agrawal, S.A., Auer, R., de Vos, J., et al.
(2012). Bile acid malabsorption in patients with graft-versus-host disease of the gastrointestinal tract. Br j haematol,
Auer, R.L., MacDougall, F., Oakervee, H.E., Taussig, D., Davies, J.K., Syndercombe-Court, D., Agrawal, S., Cavenagh, J.D., Lister, T.A. & Gribben, J.G., et al.
(2012). T-cell replete fludarabine/cyclophosphamide reduced intensity allogeneic stem cell transplantation for lymphoid malignancies. Br j haematol,
The relative merits of reduced-intensity allogeneic stem cell transplantation (RISCT) for high-risk indolent lymphoid malignancies are emerging, although the preferred conditioning regimen to manage the risks of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is not clearly defined. Here we report the outcome of 73 patients with lymphoid malignancies who received RISCT with a fludarabine/cyclophosphosphamide conditioning regimen and a median follow-up of 3 years. Median age was 54 years. Forty-eight per cent of patients had previously undergone autologous stem cell transplantation with a median of three prior therapies. Non-relapse mortality at 3 years was 19% but only 5% for patients with multiple myeloma (MM). Three-year overall survival and current progression-free survival was 67% and 63% respectively. Grade 2-4 acute GVHD occurred in 14% of patients while 49% had chronic GVHD requiring systemic immunosuppression. The preparatory regimen in this study has the advantage of reduced acute GVHD and low mortality, notably in patients with MM. In addition, this strategy provides long-term disease control in a significant proportion of patients with particular benefit in those with high-risk follicular lymphoma..
Farren, T.W., Giustiniani, J., Liu, F.-., Tsitsikas, D.A., Macey, M.G., Cavenagh, J.D., Oakervee, H.E., Taussig, D., Newland, A.C., Calaminici, M., et al.
(2011). Differential and tumor-specific expression of CD160 in B-cell malignancies. Blood,
CD160 is a human natural killer (NK)-cell-activating receptor that is also expressed on T-cell subsets. In the present study, we examined 811 consecutive cases of B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders (B-LPDs), and demonstrated CD160 expression in 98% (590 of 600) of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cases, 100% (32 of 32) of hairy cell leukemia (HCL) cases, 15% (5 of 34) of mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) in the leukemic phase, and 16% (23 of 145) of other B-LPD cases. CD160 transcript and protein were absent in the normal B-cell hierarchy, from stem cells, B-cell precursors, maturing B cells in the germinal center, and circulating B cells, including CD5(+)CD19(+) B1 cells in umbilical cord. CD160 positivity was significantly higher in CLL and HCL in terms of percentage (65.9% and 67.8%, respectively, P < .0001) and median fluorescence intensity (552 and 857, respectively, P < .0001) compared with all other B-LPD cases. Lymph node CLL samples were also CD160(+). Using the disease-specific expression of CD5, CD23, and CD160, a score of 3 characterized CLL (diagnostic odds ratio, 1430); a score of 0 excluded CLL, MCL, and HCL; and the CD23/CD5 ratio differentiated CLL from leukemic CD23(+) MCL. In the B-cell lineage, CD160 is a tumor-specific antigen known to mediate cellular activation signals in CLL, and is a novel target for therapeutic manipulation and monitoring of minimal residual disease..
Taussig, D.C., Vargaftig, J., Miraki-Moud, F., Griessinger, E., Sharrock, K., Luke, T., Lillington, D., Oakervee, H., Cavenagh, J., Agrawal, S.G., et al.
(2010). Leukemia-initiating cells from some acute myeloid leukemia patients with mutated nucleophosmin reside in the CD34(-) fraction. Blood,
Leukemia-initiating cells (LICs) in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) are believed to be restricted to the CD34(+) fraction. However, one of the most frequently mutated genes in AML is nucleophosmin (NPM), and this is associated with low CD34 expression. We, therefore, investigated whether NPM-mutated AMLs have LICs restricted to the CD34(+) fraction. We transplanted sorted fractions of primary NPM-mutated AML into immunodeficient mice to establish which fractions initiate leukemia. Approximately one-half of cases had LICs exclusively within the CD34(-) fraction, whereas the CD34(+) fraction contained normal multilineage hematopoietic repopulating cells. Most of the remaining cases had LICs in both CD34(+) and CD34(-) fractions. When samples were sorted based on CD34 and CD38 expression, multiple fractions initiated leukemia in primary and secondary recipients. The data indicate that the phenotype of LICs is more heterogeneous than previously realized and can vary even within a single sample. This feature of LICs may make them particularly difficult to eradicate using therapies targeted against surface antigens..
Anjos-Afonso, F., Taussig, D. & Bonnet, D.
(2009). PERTURBED BONE MARROW MESENCHYMAL STROMAL (MSC) COMPARTMENT IN AML PATIENTS: IMPLICATION FOR UNDERSTANDING LEUKEMIC MICROENVIRONMENT. Experimental hematology,
Le Dieu, R., Taussig, D.C., Ramsay, A.G., Mitter, R., Miraki-Moud, F., Fatah, R., Lee, A.M., Lister, T.A. & Gribben, J.G.
(2009). Peripheral blood T cells in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients at diagnosis have abnormal phenotype and genotype and form defective immune synapses with AML blasts. Blood,
Understanding how the immune system in patients with cancer interacts with malignant cells is critical for the development of successful immunotherapeutic strategies. We studied peripheral blood from newly diagnosed patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) to assess the impact of this disease on the patients' T cells. The absolute number of peripheral blood T cells is increased in AML compared with healthy controls. An increase in the absolute number of CD3+56+ cells was also noted. Gene expression profiling on T cells from AML patients compared with healthy donors demonstrated global differences in transcription suggesting aberrant T-cell activation patterns. These gene expression changes differ from those observed in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), indicating the heterogeneous means by which different tumors evade the host immune response. However, in common with CLL, differentially regulated genes involved in actin cytoskeletal formation were identified, and therefore the ability of T cells from AML patients to form immunologic synapses was assessed. Although AML T cells could form conjugates with autologous blasts, their ability to form immune synapses and recruit phosphotyrosine signaling molecules to the synapse was significantly impaired. These findings identify T-cell dysfunction in AML that may contribute to the failure of a host immune response against leukemic blasts..
Le Dieu, R., Taussig, D., Lister, T.A. & Gribben, J.G.
(2009). Negative immunomagnetic selection of T cells from peripheral blood of presentation AML specimens. J immunol methods,
To date, studies on T cells in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) have been limited to flow cytometric analysis of whole peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) specimens or functional work looking at the impact of AML myeloblasts on normal or remission T cells. This lack of information on T cells at the time of presentation with disease is due in part to the difficulty in isolating sufficiently pure T cells from these specimens for further study. Negative immunomagnetic selection has been the method of choice for isolating immune cells for functional studies due to concerns that binding antibodies to the cell surface may induce cellular activation, block ligand-receptor interactions or result in immune clearance. In order specifically to study T cells in presentation AML specimens, we set out to develop a method of isolating highly pure CD4 and CD8 T cells by negative selection from the peripheral blood (PB) of newly diagnosed AML patients. This technique, unlike T cell selection from PB from normal individuals or from patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia, was extremely problematic due to properties of the leukaemic myeloblasts. A successful method was eventually optimized requiring the use of a custom antibody cocktail consisting of CD33, CD34, CD123, CD11c and CD36, to deplete myeloblasts..
Taussig, D.C., Miraki-Moud, F., Anjos-Afonso, F., Pearce, D.J., Allen, K., Ridler, C., Lillington, D., Oakervee, H., Cavenagh, J., Agrawal, S.G., et al.
(2008). Anti-CD38 antibody-mediated clearance of human repopulating cells masks the heterogeneity of leukemia-initiating cells. Blood,
Immunodeficient mice are increasingly used to assay human hematopoietic repopulating cells as well as leukemia-initiating cells. One method commonly used to isolate these rare cells is to sort cells stained with fluorochrome-conjugated antibodies into fractions, then transplant the different fractions into immunodeficient mice to test their repopulating ability. The antibodies are generally treated as being neutral in terms of their effects on the experiment. Human repopulating cells are thought to express CD34 and lack CD38. Here we present evidence that anti-CD38 antibodies have a profound inhibitory effect on engraftment of cord blood and leukemia cells. We show that this effect is Fc-mediated and can be overcome by treating mice with immunosuppressive antibodies. When this inhibitory effect is prevented, we demonstrate that the CD34(+)CD38(+) fraction of certain acute myeloid leukemia samples contains all, or at least most, leukemia-initiating cell capacity. This study highlights the potential pitfall of antibody-mediated clearance of repopulating cells and is important for any groups working with this model. More importantly, the work suggests that there is greater variation in the phenotypes of leukemia-initiating cells than previously suggested..
Le Dieu, R., Ramsay, A.G., Taussig, D., Mitter, R. & Gribben, J.G.
(2008). Differential Gene Expression Profile Identifies the Nature of T Cell Defects in AML Patients at Diagnosis. Blood,
Pearce, D.J., Taussig, D., Zibara, K., Smith, L.-., Ridler, C.M., Preudhomme, C., Young, B.D., Rohatiner, A.Z., Lister, T.A. & Bonnet, D., et al.
(2006). AML engraftment in the NOD/SCID assay reflects the outcome of AML: implications for our understanding of the heterogeneity of AML. Blood,
The nonobese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficient (NOD/SCID) assay is the current model for assessment of human normal and leukemic stem cells. We explored why 51% of 59 acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients were unable to initiate leukemia in NOD/SCID mice. Increasing the cell dose, using more permissive recipients, and alternative tissue sources did not cause AML engraftment in most previously nonengrafting AML samples. Homing of AML cells to the marrow was the same between engrafters and nonengrafters. FLT3 internal tandem duplication (ITD) and nucleophosmin mutations occurred at a similar frequency in engrafters and nonengrafters. The only variable that was related to engraftment ability was the karyotypically defined risk stratification of individual AML cases. Of interest, follow-up of younger patients with intermediate-risk AML revealed a significant difference in overall survival between NOD/SCID engrafting and nonengrafting AMLs. Hence, the ability of AML to engraft in the NOD/SCID assay seems to be an inherent property of AML cells, independent of homing, conditioning, or cell frequency/source, which is directly related to prognosis. Our results suggest an important difference between leukemic initiating cells between engrafting and nonengrafting AML cases that correlates with treatment response..
Pearce, D.J., Taussig, D.C. & Bonnet, D.
(2006). Implications of the expression of myeloid markers on normal and leukemic stem cells. Cell cycle,
We have recently described the expression of CD33 and other antigens previously thought to be myeloid specific on both acute myeloid leukemia-initiating cells (AML-IC) and normal hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) that are capable of repopulating immuno-deficient mice. Here, we discuss that the presence of myeloid markers on AML-ICs and HSCs makes identification of an antigen for targeted therapy extremely difficult. Xenotransplantation assays should be used wherever possible to test the suitability of candidate antigens for targeted therapy, including the assessment of the effect on normal cells..
Davies, J.K., Taussig, D.C., Oakervee, H., Davies, A.J., Agrawal, S.G., Gribben, J.G., Lister, T.A. & Cavenagh, J.D.
(2006). Long-term follow-up after reduced-intensity conditioning allogeneic transplantation for acute myeloid leukemia/myelodysplastic syndrome: late CNS relapses despite graft-versus-host disease. J clin oncol,
Pearce, D.J., Taussig, D., Simpson, C., Allen, K., Rohatiner, A.Z., Lister, T.A. & Bonnet, D.
(2005). Characterization of cells with a high aldehyde dehydrogenase activity from cord blood and acute myeloid leukemia samples. Stem cells,
Aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) is a cytosolic enzyme that is responsible for the oxidation of intracellular aldehydes. Elevated levels of ALDH have been demonstrated in murine and human progenitor cells compared with other hematopoietic cells, and this is thought to be important in chemoresistance. A method for the assessment of ALDH activity in viable cells recently has been developed and made commercially available in a kit format. In this study, we confirmed the use of the ALDH substrate kit to identify cord blood stem/progenitor cells. Via multicolor flow cytometry of cord blood ALDH+ cells, we have expanded on their phenotypic analysis. We then assessed the incidence, morphology, phenotype, and nonobese diabetic/ severe combined immunodeficiency engraftment ability of ALDH+ cells from acute myeloid leukemia (AML) samples. AML samples had no ALDH+ cells at all, an extremely rare nonmalignant stem/progenitor cell population, or a less rare, leukemic stem cell population. Hence, in addition to identifying nonmalignant stem cells within some AML samples, a high ALDH activity also identifies some patients' CD34+/ CD38- leukemic stem cells. The incidence of normal or leukemic stem cells with an extremely high ALDH activity may have important implications for resistance to chemotherapy. Identification and isolation of leukemic cells on the basis of ALDH activity provides a tool for their isolation and further analysis..
Taussig, D.C., Pearce, D.J., Simpson, C., Rohatiner, A.Z., Lister, T.A., Kelly, G., Luongo, J.L., Danet-Desnoyers, G.-. & Bonnet, D.
(2005). Hematopoietic stem cells express multiple myeloid markers: implications for the origin and targeted therapy of acute myeloid leukemia. Blood,
Human hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are generally regarded as being devoid of the markers expressed by differentiated blood cells, the lineage-specific antigens. However, recent work suggests that genes associated with the myeloid lineage are transcribed in mouse HSCs. Here, we explore whether myeloid genes are actually translated in human HSCs. We show that CD33, CD13, and CD123, well-established myeloid markers, are expressed on human long-term repopulating cells from cord blood and bone marrow. In addition, we demonstrate that nonobese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficiency (NOD/SCID) leukemia-initiating cells (SL-ICs) are restricted to the CD33+ fraction in 11 of 12 acute myeloid leukemia (AML) samples studied, indicating that leukemic stem cells (LSCs) express this antigen. This study changes our view of HSCs and the process of differentiation. Furthermore, based on the phenotypic similarity of HSCs and LSCs, our data provide support for the hypothesis that AML derives from an HSC. Our findings also provide a challenge to contemporary attempts to improve the outcome of AML using myeloid antigen-targeted therapies, given the potential for HSC killing..
Taussig, D.C., Davies, A.J., Cavenagh, J.D., Oakervee, H., Syndercombe-Court, D., Kelsey, S., Amess, J.A., Rohatiner, A.Z., Lister, T.A. & Barnett, M.J., et al.
(2003). Durable remissions of myelodysplastic syndrome and acute myeloid leukemia after reduced-intensity allografting. J clin oncol,
PURPOSE: To evaluate the use of reduced-intensity (RI) conditioning with allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) from HLA-identical family donors in patients with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) or acute myeloid leukemia (AML). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Sixteen patients (median age, 54 years; range, 37 to 66 years) underwent RI-HSCT using a conditioning regimen of fludarabine 25 mg/m2 daily for 5 days and either cyclophosphamide 1 g/m2 daily for 2 days (14 patients) or melphalan 140 mg/m2 for 1 day (two patients). The median number of CD34+ cells and CD3+ cells infused per kilogram of recipient weight was 4.5 x 106 (range, 1.8 to 7.3 x 106 cells) and 2.9 x 108 (range, 0.1 to 9.6 x 108 cells), respectively. RESULTS: There was no transplant-related mortality (TRM) within 100 days of HSCT. Grade 1 to 2 acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) occurred in three patients, but neither grade 3 nor grade 4 disease was observed. Chronic GVHD occurred in 10 patients. One patient had cytomegalovirus (CMV) reactivation but did not develop CMV disease. With a median follow-up of 26 months (range, 15 to 45 months), 11 patients are alive (nine in continuous complete remission and one in complete remission after a second transplantation), and five have died (four from disease progression and one from bone-marrow aplasia induced by cyclosporine withdrawal). The 2-year actuarial overall and event-free survival rates were 69% (95% confidence interval [CI], 40% to 86%) and 56% (95% CI, 30% to 68%), respectively. CONCLUSION: This strategy of RI-HSCT resulted in reliable engraftment with low incidence of acute GVHD and TRM. Durable remissions were observed in patients with MDS and AML consistent with a graft-versus-leukemia effect..
Longhurst, H.J., Taussig, D., Haque, T., Syndercombe-Court, D., Cavenagh, J., Edgar, J.D. & Helbert, M.R.
(2002). Non-myeloablative bone marrow transplantation in an adult with Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome. Br j haematol,
Early bone marrow transplant is now standard treatment for infants with severe immunodeficiencies such as Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome (WAS), but results in older children and adults are poor. Non-myeloablative transplant has shown promise in the treatment of older children, who are likely to have active infections and organ damage. We describe a non-myeloablative transplant of a 26-year-old man with WAS, undertaken because of severe infections and vasculitis. Partial engraftment and immunorestoration were achieved. The patient is well 1 year post transplantation..
Allen, D., Ng, S., Beaton, K. & Taussig, D.
(2002). Sternal osteomyelitis caused by Aspergillus fumigatus in a patient with previously treated Hodgkin's disease. J clin pathol,
This report details the case of a 67 year old woman with sternal osteomyelitis caused by Aspergillus fumigatus. She was diagnosed with Hodgkin's disease in 1975 and was successfully treated with chemotherapy. A lobectomy for recurrence localised to the left lung was complicated nine years later by severe bronchiectasis, for which she required a total left sided pneumonectomy. At surgery, a non-invasive aspergillus was found. She presented eight years later with symptoms that were initially attributed to recurrence of Hodgkins's disease, but on investigation were found to be caused by fungal sternal osteomyelitis. Treatment with itraconazole suspension at a dose of 400 mg daily was successful..
Taussig, D.C., Pearce, D.J. & Bonnet, D.A.
(2002). Male cells in female recipients of hematopoietic-cell transplants. N engl j med,
Ho, T., Taussig, D. & McAnulty, G.
(1997). Effect of atenolol on mortality and cardiovascular morbidity after noncardiac surgery. N engl j med,